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Birth of An Industry: Blackface Minstrelsy and the Rise of American Animation

Nicholas Sammond, Author
Labor, page 15 of 21


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Labor, Page 123

In Hollywood goes Krazy (1932) Groucho Marx dances with a befuddled studio guard while Krazy Kat joins caricatures of popular Hollywood stars.

In Hollywood Bowl (1938), Groucho pursues Greta Garbo, who has very large feet. 

In Thugs with Dirty Mugs (1939), a bulldog version of Edward G. Robinson threatens an audience member. In one very reflexive moment an animated shadow (signifying an audience member lit by the screen)  tattles to the police about Robinson's secret hiding spot. 

Indicative of the central role that cartoons played in the transition to sound film, these cartoons simultaneously operated as replacements for live acts before  features and as advertisements for other films and stars.
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