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Birth of An Industry: Blackface Minstrelsy and the Rise of American Animation

Nicholas Sammond, Author

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Performance, Page 54

While McCay was performing his mastery of the lightning sketch, other animators were busy laying the groundwork for an animation industry which would be able to compete in the burgeoning yet uneven movie market. 

John and Margaret Bray began working on their Colonel Heeza Liar series (1913-1924) in the same year that McCay was producing Gertie. The preindustrial mode of artisanal production practiced by McCay would soon be superseded by the rationalized, organized animation complex, divided by a series of hierarchical roles—such as apprentice, journeymen, inker, tracer, producer and director—being developed at the Bray studios.
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