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Birth of An Industry: Blackface Minstrelsy and the Rise of American Animation

Nicholas Sammond, Author

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Performance, Page 77

Made of magical and mutable ink, Ko-Ko the Clown multiplies and revolts against Max Fleischer in Jumping Beans (1922). This Out of the Inkwell short features the Fleischers' signature move of piercing the boundary between the real and the drawn worlds. It also ends with Ko-Ko laying siege to Fleischer. Although Max was a producer rather than animator, this film is an example of how the Fleischers collapsed the two positions and replayed the drama of the cartoon character trying to flee its creator that was so important to early animation.

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