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Birth of An Industry: Blackface Minstrelsy and the Rise of American Animation

Nicholas Sammond, Author

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Labor, Page 102

An essential text for many animators working in the 1920s, Edwin Lutz's Animated Cartoons: How They Are Made, Their Origins and Development (1920) became a how-to manual for young animators such as Ub Iwerks, Walt Disney and Friz Freleng. 

Influenced by contemporary time and motion studies, Lutz's book broke down animation into discrete tasks and encouraged animators to study the basics of motion and animal and human movement. Some animation studios eventually produced in-house versions of this sort of book to train apprentice animators and to streamline the production process by regulating drawing styles. 
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