Performing ArchiveMain MenuVisualizing the “Vanishing Race”: the photogravures of Edward S. CurtisFront Page for Visualizing the "Vanishing Race" pathCurtis' Image and Life: The Network of The North American Indian, Inc.An experiment with data visualization approach to understand and contextualize Curtis' images and his lifeMedia, Technology and MediationsCurtis's Technology, Relationships to Media and StyleContextualizing Curtis, The North American Indian, and Racethe collection of essays from the contributorsConsulting with Tribes as Part of Archive DevelopmentIntroduction to Consulting with Tribes by Ulia GosartContributing ArchivesInformation on how to participate in Performing ArchiveBrowsing the MediaA path of paths that allow users to cut through the collection in a variety of ways.Acknowledgements and Project InformationProject NetworkJacqueline Wernimontbce78f60db1628727fc0b905ad2512506798cac8David J. Kim18723eee6e5a79c8d8823c02b7b02cb2319ee0f1Stephan Schonberg23744229577bdc62e9a8c09d3492541be754e1efAmy Borsukc533a79d33d48cbf428e1160c2edc0b38c50db19Beatrice Schustera02047525b31e94c1336b01e99d7f4f758870500Heather Blackmored0a2bf9f2053b3c0505d20108092251fc75010bfUlia Gosart (Popova)67c984897e6357dbeeac6a13141c0defe5ef3403
12018-03-16T21:06:59-07:00Erik Loyerf862727c4b34febd6a0341bffd27f168a35aa637294821This picture might be titled "Life Primeval." It is the Apache as we would mentally picture him in the time of the Stone Age. It was made at a spot on Black river, Arizona, where the dark, still pool breaks into the laugh of a rapids.plain2018-03-16T21:06:59-07:00Curtis, Edward S. 1868-19521906Digital images of the plates supported by an award from the Library of Congress/Ameritech National Digital Library Competition, and mounted in American Memory. See http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award98/ienhtml/curthome.html Digital reproduction of the photomechanical printcp01007 - portfolio 1 plate no. 7For educational, non-commercial use only. Written permission required for any reproduction beyond fair use. Credit: Northwestern University Library, Edward S. Curtis's "The North American Indian," 2003. http://digital.library.northwestern.edu/curtis/The North American Indian (1907-1930) v.01, The Apache. The Jicarillas. The Navaho ([Seattle] : E.S. Curtis ; [Cambridge, Mass. : The University Press], 1907), plate no. 71 photogravure : brown ink ; 46 x 33 cm [plate size] Original photogravure produced in Boston by John Andrew & Sonhttp://curtis.library.northwestern.edu/curtis/info.cgi?id=nai.01.port.00000008.pErik Loyerf862727c4b34febd6a0341bffd27f168a35aa637
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12018-03-16T21:12:58-07:00Erik Loyerf862727c4b34febd6a0341bffd27f168a35aa637Gallery: "Man Wearing Headband and Breechcloth"Erik Loyer1part of Contextualizing Curtisstructured_gallery2018-03-16T21:12:58-07:00Erik Loyerf862727c4b34febd6a0341bffd27f168a35aa637
12018-03-16T21:13:07-07:00Erik Loyerf862727c4b34febd6a0341bffd27f168a35aa637RADIAL VIEW TEST with ApacheErik Loyer1vis2018-03-16T21:13:07-07:00Apache Photos test with scalarErik Loyerf862727c4b34febd6a0341bffd27f168a35aa637
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12018-03-16T21:11:17-07:00TEST Visualization Page1plain2018-03-16T21:11:17-07:00Since most of the connections in this visualization contain one-to-one relationship between the image and the subject, the nodes with more than one connection easily stood out from the rest. Although we had spent considerable amount of time browsing the digital collections in the Northwestern Digital Library and the American Memory sites, since their interface do not offer an effectively digestible gallery view of all the images contain within a volume, this visualization brought our attention several details that haven't been discussed previously.
1. "Man Wearing Headband and Breechcloth:" The Quintessential Apache?
Out of the 35 unique nodes in the circle of Apache, the subject described as "Man Wearing Headband and Breechcloth" (Library of Congress of description) is represented in 4 of the images. One of the titles describes him as simply "Apache" while other image titles focus on nature and features of the landscape in the images: "By the Sycamore" "Bathing Pool" (or "By the Pool") and "The Pool" Closer examination of these images reveals that it is most likely that the same subject is featured in all of them. How do we explain Curtis' fixation on this subject? To what extent are these representations "posed," in order to construct and support Curtis' claims of realism: "Therefore, being directly from Nature, the accompanying pictures show what actually exists or has recently existed…, not what the artist in his studio may presume the Indian and his surroundings to be."8
2. Navaho, a Tribe of Mythical Figures?
For the images that comprise the Navaho, the networks contains far more multiple connections than those of other tribes. The areas within the network that contain these multiple connections are primarily the images of the subjects performing mythical figures during a ritual: "Haschelti," "Haschenzhini," "Gaaskidi," etc.... Using the search filter for the column "mythical" in the dataset, the visualization shows that while mythical figures are only referred to once for the Apache and none for the Jicarilla, 12 out of total 33 images of the Navaho that contain human subjects are of these fully masked figures, many of them depicted in multiple images. Without drawing any definitive analysis from this finding, one can simply state that this "distant view" allows such patterns that would have been difficult to notice in digital exhibits. Is the Navaho tribe particularly more invested in these ceremonies than the other tribes are? As with the example of the "Man Wearing Headband and Breechcloth," Curtis' documentation of the each of the tribes fixates on certain subjects.
3. Women of Jicarilla
Out of the three tribes documented in volume 1 of the North American Indian, the Jicarilla tribe is noticeably depicted the least. Curtis includes only 7 images that contain human subjects. Looking at this node closer, we also see that 5 out of the 7 images are representations of figures explicitly described as woman in the titles. Furthermore, the image that is simply titled "A Jicarilla" is a woman referred to in another image as "Vash Gon," who Curtis represents to emphasize her facial features that cast a shadow from her profile. Why is this tribe particularly gendered in this way? Does this support the claim that Jicarilla is a traditionally matrilineal society? But so is the Navaho tradition, but there isn't such emphasis on women in his documentation of the Navaho tribe.
8. Edward S. Curtis, in the General Introduction in vol. 1, xiii-xiv)↩