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Birth of An Industry: Blackface Minstrelsy and the Rise of American Animation

Nicholas Sammond, Author

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Performance, Page 80

The trope of the performing animator lingered long after animation's rationalization as an industry. Producers often performed the role of creator, seemingly controlling their autonomous, mischievous cartoon characters and their animators. Onscreen, though, the animator's presence was slowly replaced by an indexical marker—such as this photo cutout of a hand, which stands in for the animator's (perhaps that of Otto Messmer), appearing with his creation, Felix. 

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