Allied government officials were steadfast in their belief that Japanese sex-workers, and Japanese women in general, were to blame for the spread of venereal diseases. In response, they established rules that segregated Japanese civilians and American soldiers. They also encouraged police to subject many Japanese women to raids, involuntary detention, and inhumane medical exams. Years later, scholars definitively concluded that the spread of venereal disease in Occupied Japan was not, in fact, caused by Japanese women or even sex workers in particular but, rather, was largely brought by the Allied soldiers themselves. In reality, Allied soldiers unknowingly picked up these diseases in earlier years and, therefore, were the true source of the disastrous spread of VD in Occupied Japan.