Asia-Pacific in the Making of the Americas: Toward a Global History

The China Trade Era

The Portuguese came to Guangzhou to establish trade relations as early as 1513.  By the time other Europeans arrived, the Portuguese had a foothold in Macau and official escort duties up the Pearl River.  The English and the Dutch established state-sponsored East Indies Companies in 1600 and 1602 respectively.  The Anglo-Americans, while well aware of the significance and details of the East Indies trades, only established trade relations in China following independence from Britain—immediately following.  The essays in this connection explore different topics related to the U.S. early republic's "Old China Trade" (1784-1842).


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