Michel de Certeau describes, in his Practice of Everyday Life, an opposition between the power of urban control and the erratic energy of the street (91-5) by identifying “the network of an antidiscipline” that is at odds with “the grid of ‘discipline’” (xiv-xv). Building on this opposition, Rose Marie San Juan has argued that prints of fountains “argue for progress and social order but also confront dynamic movement, seepage, and unpredictability within urban space” (137). Piranesi’s composition reflects this tension in two dimensions. The cross atop the fountainhead that punctures the engraving’s margin conveys the church’s expansive power, and the oblique perspective emphasizes the fountainhead’s mass. This power is at odds, though, with uncontrolled vitality. The botanical growth that surrounds the image challenges the fountain’s dominance of nature. Human activity, which is usually absent from earlier views of fountains, is abundant in this view, where it seems to be primarily social—there are no indications of commerce or tourism that are frequent in Piranesi’s other prints. To be sure, fountains served as meeting-places and centers for social encounter. But here, people are everywhere, gesticulating in the street, leaning out from windows, and, quite significantly, standing between the caption’s curling illusionistic scroll. There, between image and text, between illusion and reality, Piranesi creates dissonance that matches the conflict the image stages between the regulation of nature and the spillage of the city’s population. In a similar rupture, a fruit vendor leans over the caption in the view of two churches near the Column of Trajan. The expressive human figures that populate most of Piranesi’s views here confront the political power of the Church and its urban projects with the vitality of street life which, unlike the water that the fountain controls, more insistently defies regulation. (JB)
To see this image in the Vedute di Roma, volume 16 of Piranesi’s Opere, click here.