This project would not have been possible without the openness and generosity of Sean Kelley, Senior Vice President and Director of Public Programming at Eastern State Penitentiary, who readily shared his records and memories of Pandemonium. Equal thanks are due Julie Courtney for her singular perspective on the circumstances of Pandemonium’s creation. I thank Richard Torchia for all he did to bring the artwork to life and, through his vivid writing and recollections, to preserve some part of it for the future. Experiencing Cardiff audio walks first-hand was essential to interpreting Pandemonium; at the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden my thanks go to Nick Kaplan, Collections Assistant and New Media Conservation Specialist, for facilitating my experience of Words Drawn in Water (2005), and at the Public Art Fund to Megan Burns and Kellie Honeycutt for granting access to Her Long Black Hair (2004). Further appreciation is due Christopher Harris and colleagues at Luhring Augustine for a productive day with the gallery’s Cardiff and Miller archive. Turning my thesis into a digital publication would not have been possible without the always enthusiastic support and savvy of Quint Gregory in the Michelle Smith Collaboratory for Visual Culture at the University of Maryland. Finally, unending gratitude to my adviser Joshua Shannon, as well as to my committee members Renée Ater and Steven Mansbach, each of whom spurred and sharpened my thinking.