French Freedom PapersMain MenuLettersSummaries of the translated letters of the French Freedom Papers collectionRelevant FiguresProvides context about the people sending, receiving, and mentioned in these lettersRelevant Events & PlacesProvides context about the historical events and places being discussed in the lettersReferencesSources used to give context to the historical events and figures found in the letters.External ResourcesLinks to external sites about Charles de Gaulle, World War II, Free French, and this collectionTranslation MethodsKSU French 7208b42ed21d3c5345086d6fd65589ad65f6b323f0c
12016-10-02T16:38:14-07:00Mary Hellmer9543bbbc864f26c17be9a9d2ad5b4c1fb3a2b378986316plain2016-12-06T17:48:29-08:00Mary Hellmer9543bbbc864f26c17be9a9d2ad5b4c1fb3a2b378Charles Mangin (1866-1925) was mandated by the French Army high command to embody the "offensive spirit" prior to the start of the war in August 1914. Following his graduation from Saint Cyr, he served in Sudan and French North Africa before WWI. He and Robert Nivellewere removed from effective command following a failed attack during their time in North Africa. However, he was nicknamed "the butcher" and the Tenth Army was responsible for the critical Allied counter-attack at the Second Battle of the Marne, an event that resurrected his military reputation. After the war he joined the Supreme War Council and became inspector general of the French colonial troops (Duffy, "Who's Who - Charles Mangin").
12016-10-02T16:04:36-07:00Mary Hellmer9543bbbc864f26c17be9a9d2ad5b4c1fb3a2b378Relevant Figures40Provides context about the people sending, receiving, and mentioned in these lettersplain2016-12-07T12:28:51-08:00Adam Hewitt-Smith5668a062423ae2835c759a6a3349d8986e6a4532