1.American Anthropological Association (5/17/98). AAA Statement on Race. Statement posted to:(http://www.americananthro.org/ConnectWithAAA/Content.aspx?ItemNumber=2583)
The piece provided by the American Anthropology Association emphasizes that race, such a heavily debated topic all around the world, is merely a social construction that was used in a colonial context to enslave people through language. My research revolves around the innate sense of hopelessness under the American government system as a Black person because constantly federal and state legislated programs threaten the existence of African-Americans, and people of color in general. Thus, this text challenges my research because highlighting that “race” is non-existent, through analysis of human DNA, the term’s origin, and its usage throughout human existence, furthers the question of why people are being murdered over minimal differences.
2.BBC. (Producer). Scientific Racism: The Eugenics of Social Darwinism. BBC. Retrieved from: (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3FmEjDaWqA4)
This is a documentary produced by BBC to show the racist subdivision of science that tends to be buried in history. At the time, the concept of race frightened white people so much that they felt “genetically threatened” to the point where eugenics was created. The “science” was meant to preserve “white DNA” by preventing other races they saw an “inferior” from repopulating. This documentary furthers the point that race is a social construction because the white people in power changed their definition of “inferior races”, from people of color, to mentally ill, and then even white people, whenever they saw fit.
3.Dietrich, C. Layer, E, et al. Scalar (online software). California. Located at: http://scalar.usc.edu/scalar/
I will use this online tool to showcase the album in it’s entirety with guided analysis through each song.
4.Dyson, M. (1996). Between God And Gangsta Rap. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Dyson’s book elaborates on the impact of gangsta rap in America to the Black community and its reception from government and critics. This text strengthens my point that rap music has enough power as a platform to make positive change and expose the harsh truths of a person’s experience in America.
5.hooks, b. (2003). Rock My Soul. New York, NY: Atria Books
hook’s texts provided deeper analysis into the origin of low Black self-esteem and what could be done to alleviate the issue. In addition to those topics, hooks also provides explanations on how such a large issue like low Black self-esteem has remained a topic that has not been discussed. These reflections aid my analysis of Lamar’s themes revolving around harsh self-critique, drug abuse, and suicidal tendencies.
6. King, L. (Interviewer) & Snipes, w. (Interviewee). (2009). Larry King Live. Retrieved from Youtube. Website: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S52onrDHt4k&t=328s&list=PLzZyTSFv3oj28wGMhm8zdDQwdL5QE9g0t&index=16
This interview with Snipes helps provide context to why Kendrick Lamar refers to the infamous case. Using Snipes and his lawyer’s response on the process helps me gauge how a rich Black man deals with the American judicial system.
7.Lynch, W. (1712). Willie Lynch’s Speech On Slave Control. Retrieved from:
This is a newspaper print from when Willie Lynch, a renowned slave owner, had came to America to give a speech on how to control slaves in a more effective manner. He specifically mentioned that the slave owners were supposed to exploit the differences among the slaves to make them not trust and envy each other. This piece is a product of my research because Lamar briefly mentions Lynch’s theory in one of his songs regarding accepting all shades of Black and not assigning privilege to lighter skin.
8.Markman, R. (Interviewer) & Lamar, K. (interviewee). (2015). Kendrick Lamar Breaks Down Tracks From ‘To Pimp A Butterfly’ (Pt. 1) | MTV News. Retrieved from Youtube. Website: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AUEI_ep9iDs&index=1&list=PLzZyTSFv3oj28wGMhm8zdDQwdL5QE9g0t
This interview with Kendrick Lamar helps unpack his message in the song “Wesley’s Theory”.
9.Moyers, B. (Author). Cornel West [Season 2, Episode 17]. Bill Moyers: A World of Ideas II--Great Thinkers. Retrieved from:
In this video, West elaborates on the benefits and shortcomings of religion, while also discussing rap music’s effect on the Black community and the crisis facing Black leadership in America. West’s points regarding what kind of leadership is needed in the Black community will further my argument that Kendrick Lamar is being an activist through this album.
8.Moyo, O. (2016). Navigating my journey towards learning Ubuntu- A way of decolonizing myself.
Moyo’s text discusses how she decolonized herself by re-teaching herself Ubuntu philosophy, and other important South African traditions, after completing her “western” learning. Granted the piece is not completely dedicated to discussing Ubuntu philosophy, her projects in South African schools that introduce and preserve Ubuntu lifestyle among younger students makes her definition and description of the philosophy credible and noteworthy. This piece furthers my research by defining the importance of Ubuntu lifestyle, which Lamar refers to briefly when discussing Zulu love, an important component of the lifestyle involving communal love.
10.Rap genius. (2015). To Pimp A Butterfly. Retrieved from: https://genius.com/albums/Kendrick-lamar/To-pimp-a-butterfly
This public online tool aided in my analysis of Kendrick Lamar’s album. When clarification was needed, I was able to rely on the site’s forum posts to assist in theoretical connections and jargon explanation.
11.Taylor, K. (2016). From #BLACKLIVESMATTER To Black Liberation. Chicago,IL: Haymarket Books
Taylor’s text overviews how the Black Lives Matter movement started, which includes history of how the government has oppressed African-Americans, and what is needed for Black liberation to truly occur. This text aided my research by providing jarring statistics, information on how social justice movements for Black Americans has shifted over time in this country, and how the government redirects blame and lack of resources on the Black community.