Sailing the British Empire : The Voyages of The Clarence, 1858-73Main MenuSailing the British Empire: The Voyages of the Clarence, 1858-73IntroductionThe Crew / AcknowledgmentsThe Provenance of Watson's LogAdditional Sources: Logs, Crew Lists, DiariesInside Lloyd's Register"Green's Celebrated Service"Details on owner of the ship at the time of our voyage, Richard Green.The Master Builder: William PileThe Master: Joseph Watson's BiographyA Mate's ProgressThe Career of Henry Berridge, First Mate of the ClarenceThe Crew of the Clarence in 1864An annotated crew listThe 18th HussarsThe Clarence and the Cyclone of 1864Origins of Indian Emigrants Aboard The ClarenceThe Surgeon-SuperintendantWages of indentured labourers in Demerara (1870-1900)The Clarence Sails to AustraliaMutiny! Violence and Resistance Aboard "Coolie Ships"Cholera: The Killer from CalcuttaSTSC 077, Fall 2015 First Year Seminar, University of Pennsylvaniab33a025deaa7595ed0079bfc9b77ea3cb14b8d08STSC 077, The University of Pennsylvania, fall 2015
The sexual assault conducted by both the surgeons and other works on board is well documented. While surgeons were supposed to be protecting the emigrants, they often times were the ones doing the most harm. Often times a surgeon would go down between the decks and drag a female passenger into his cabin, proceeding to rape her. One specific case of this was that of Dr. William Holman, the surgeon on board The Ailsa in 1875. Holman was known for his many acts of sexual abuse and rape. Despite there being numerous testimonies against him, Holman was only suspended for half the journey and then reinstated to his position. Immoral in his conduct, Holman may also have been a less-than-competent doctor: aboard The Merchantman in 1857, 31% of his emigrants did not make it to the end of the voyage. Holman was only one of many “bad” surgeons. Edwin de Silva of the Henry Moore had a 23.4% mortality rate and participated in a sexual relationship with one of the female passengers on board. Dr. C Hatchell of the Bucephalus detailed many of his misconducts and inability to treat those on board in his journal entries. He so described a dead passenger: “Worms were actually crawling amid filth in in their clothes,” clearly illustrating his inability to keep the ship clean and to project this duty onto the emigrants. J. Seaman of Thomas Hamlyn was so drunk that he was unable to help a pregnant passenger. Dr. J.R. Brown was asked to leave his position after reportedly getting drunk and proceeding to pull the clothing off of female passengers. Not all surgeons were “bad,” however. Dr. Shaw of the Syria used a canoe to fetch help after the ship had crashed into a reef. The majority of Indians were saved thanks to his heroic acts. Others made a great effort to do the best they could given their resources: Samuel Crane of the Telegraph battled cholera on board with “great energy, intelligence, and the most minute attention.” Therefore, it was possible to combat disease on board. At the same time, however, ships’ surgeons were often constrained by the limits of contemporary medical knowledge or remedies.
Tinker, Hugh. A New System of Slavery; the Export of Indian Labour Overseas, 1830-1920. London: Published for the Institute of Race Relations by Oxford UP, 1974. Print.
Lubbock, Basil. Coolie Ships and Oil Sailers. Glasgow: Brown, Son & Ferguson, 1935. Print.
Mangru, Basdeo. Benevolent Neutrality: Indian Government Policy and Labour Migration to British Guiana, 1854-1884. London: Hansib Pub., 1987. Print.
Bahadur, Gaiutra. Coolie Woman: The Odyssey of Indenture. U of Chicago, 2014. Print.
Shepherd, Verene. Maharani's Misery: Narratives of a Passage from India to the Caribbean. Kingston, Jamaica: U of the West Indies, 2002. Print.
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1media/Screen Shot 2015-12-17 at 1.22.02 PM.png2015-11-24T21:38:13-08:00Alden Terryeda541eb6a8a53055892f3a0c4ae86df6a0c654bThe Surgeon-SuperintendantSTSC 077, Fall 2015 First Year Seminar, University of Pennsylvania8splash2075892016-02-24T21:05:34-08:00STSC 077, Fall 2015 First Year Seminar, University of Pennsylvaniab33a025deaa7595ed0079bfc9b77ea3cb14b8d08