The Story of the Stuff: Issues in Temporary Memorial Preservation

Further Reading

To read the full book chapter on this topic or cite this list, consult: 

Maynor, Ashley R. "Response to the Unthinkable: Collecting and Archiving Condolence and Temporary Memorial Materials following Public Tragedies." In Handbook of Research on Disaster Management and Contingency Planning in Modern Libraries, ed. Emy Nelson Decker and Jennifer A. Townes, 582-624 (2016). doi:10.4018/978-1-4666-8624-3.ch025


Adler, Nanci. 2009. Memories of Mass Repression: Narrating Life Stories in the Aftermath of Atrocity. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. Find in Worldcat

Agger, Ben and Timothy W. Luke. 2008. There Is a Gunman on Campus: Tragedy and Terror at Virginia Tech. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Find in Worldcat

Allen, Thomas B. 1995. Offerings at the Wall: Artifacts from the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Collection. Atlanta; Kansas City, MO: Turner Publishing; Distributed by Andrews and McMeel. Find in Worldcat

Barsalou, Judith Marie, Victoria Baxter and United States Institute of Peace. 2007. The Urge to Remember: The Role of Memorials in Social Reconstruction and Transnational Justice. Washington, DC: United Institute of Peace. Find in Worldcat

Cohen, Sharon L. 2013. Newtown, Moving Foward: A Community Faces the Future after Adversity. Newtown, CT.

Couldry, Nick. 2003. Media Rituals: A Critical Approach. London; New York: Routledge. Find in Worldcat

Dayan, Daniel and Elihu Katz. 1992. Media Events: The Live Broadcasting of History. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Find in Worldcat

Doss, Erika. 2008. Emotional Life of Contemporary Public Memorials : Towards a Theory of Temporary Memorials. Amsterdam, NLD: Amsterdam University Press. Find in Worldcat

Doss, Erika. 2010. Memorial Mania: Public Feeling in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Find in Worldcat

Erikson, Kai T. 1995. A New Species of Trouble: The Human Experience of Modern Disasters. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. Find in Worldcat

Felman, Shoshana and Dori Laub. 1991. Testimony: Crises of Witnessing in Literature, Psychoanalysis, and History. New York: Routledge. Find in Worldcat

Grimes, Ronald L. 2006. Rite out of Place: Ritual, Media, and the Arts. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. Find in Worldcat

Hallam, Elizabeth and Jennifer Lorna Hockey. 2001. Death, Memory, and Material Culture. Oxford; New York: Berg. Find in Worldcat

Hass, Kristin Ann. 1998. Carried to the Wall: American Memory and the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. Univ of California Press. Find in Worldcat

Jan Margry, Peter and Cristina Sanchez Carretero. 2011. Grassroots Memorials: The Politics of Memorializing Traumatic Death. New York: Berghahn Books. Find in Worldcat

Landsberg, Alison. 2004. Prosthetic Memory the Transformation of American Remembrance in the Age of Mass Culture. New York: Columbia University Press. Find in Worldcat

Mass Shootings at Virginia Tech, April 16, 2007: Report of the Virginia Tech Review Panel Presented to Timothy M. Kaine, Governor, Commonwealth of Virginia. 2007. Richmond, VA: Virginia Tech Review Panel. Find in Worldcat

Milne, Jason, Seiler, Steven J. 2009. Stephenson's Historical Ages of Death in the United States Encyclopedia of Death and the Human Experience, Edited by C. & Peck Bryant, D. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Find in Worldcat

Santino, Jack. 1992. "Not an Unimportant Failure: Rituals of Death and Politics in Northern Ireland." In Displayed in Mortal Light, edited by Michael McCaughan. Antrim: Antrim Arts Council.

Santino, Jack. 2006. Spontaneous shrines and the public memorialization of death. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Find in Worldcat

Seremetakis, C. Nadia. 1994. The Senses Still: Perception and Memory as Material Culture in Modernity. Boulder: Westview Press. Find in Worldcat

Sturken, Marita. 2007. Tourists of History: Memory, Kitsch, and Consumerism from Oklahoma City to Ground Zero. Durham: Duke University Press. Find in Worldcat

Van der Kolk, Bessel A. 2014. The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind, and Body in the Healing of Trauma. New York, NY: Viking. Find in Worldcat

Watson, Justin. 2002. The Martyrs of Columbine: Faith and the Politics of Tragedy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Find in Worldcat


Acker, Amelia and Jed R. Brubaker. 2014. "Death, Memorialization, and Social Media: A Platform Perspective for Personal Archives." Archivaria. (77): 1-23. Find in Worldcat

Applebome, Peter. February 6, 2013. "With Care, Newtown Tries to Move on Amid Tokens of Grief." The New York Times, A19.

Azaryahu, Maoz. 1996. "The Spontaneous Formation of Memorial Space: The Case of Kikar Rabin, Tel Aviv." Area. 28 (4): 501-513. Find in Worldcat

Azaryahu, Maoz and Kenneth E. Foote. 2008. "Historical Space as Narrative Medium: On the Configuration of Spatial Narratives of Time at Historical Sites." GeoJournal. 73 (3): 179-194. Find in Worldcat

Batchen, Geoffrey. 2002. "Requiem." Afterimage. 29 (4): 4-5.

Boles, Frank. 1994. ""Just a Bunch of Bigots" a Case Study in the Acquisition of of Controversial Material." Archival Issues. 19 (1): 53-65. Find in Worldcat

Brier, Stephen and Joshua Brown. 2011. "The September 11 Digital Archive: Saving the Histories of September 11, 2001." Radical History Review. 11 (111): 101-109. Find in Worldcat

Broughton, Susan. 1989. "Crisis Aftermath: A Role for the Public Library?" Public Library Journal. 4 (4).

Brown, Carol. 1999. "'Out of the Rubble': Building a Contemporary History Archive -the Oklahoma City National Memorial Archives." Perspectives. October (1999).

Clark, J. & Franzmann, M. 2006. "Authority from Grief, Presence, and Place in the Making of Roadside Memorials." Death Studies. 30 (6): 579-599. Find in Worldcat

Coonfield, Gordon and John Huxford. 2009. "News Images as Lived Images: Media Ritual, Cultural Performance, and Public Trauma." Critical Studies in Media Communication. 26 (5): 457-479. Find in Worldcat

Dearstyne, Bruce W. 2003. "Tragedies, Controversies, and Opportunities: Redefining Rim's Role in a Turbulent Time." Information Management Journal. 37 (2): 37.

Devlin, Nora. 2010. "The Ethics of Archiving "Murderabilia": The Papers of Ted Kaczynski." Journal of Information Ethics. 19 (1): 126-140. Find in Worldcat

Doss, Erika. 2002. "Death, Art and Memory in the Public Sphere: The Visual and Material Culture of Grief in Contemporary America." Mortality. 7 (1): 63-82. Find in Worldcat

Doss, Erika. 2006. "Spontaneous Memorials and Contemporary Modes of Mourning in America." Material Religion: The Journal of Objects, Art and Belief. 2 (3): 294-318. Find in Worldcat 

Erde, John. 2014. "Constructing Archives of the Occupy Movement." Archives & Records. 35 (2): 77-92. Find in Worldcat

Espley, Suzy, Florent Carpentier, Radu Pop and LeÏLa Medjkoune. 2014. "Collect, Preserve, Access: Applying the Governing Principles of the National Archives UK Government Web Archive to Social Media Content." Alexandria. 25 (1/2): 31-50. Find in Worldcat

Fidel, Raya. 1984. "The Case Study Method: A Case Study." Library and Information Science Research, An International Journal. 6 (3): 273-88. Find in Worldcat

Flagg, Lisa A. 2014. "For All the Brothas Who Ain't Here: Roadside Memorials as African-American Material Culture and Performance in Detroit." Dissertations Abstract International. Section A 74 (11-A).

Flinn, Andrew, Mary Stevens and Elizabeth Shepherd. 2009. "Whose Memories, Whose Archives? Independent Community Archives, Autonomy and the Mainstream." Archival Science. 9 (1-2): 71-86. Find in Worldcat

Fox, Edward, Christopher Andrews, Weiguo Fan, Jian Jiao, Ananya Kassahun, Szu-Chia Lu, Yifei Ma, et al. 2008. "A Digital Library for Recovery, Research, and Learning From April 16, 2007, at Virginia Tech." Traumatology. 14 (1): 64-84. Find in Worldcat

Gardner, J.B. & Henry, S.M. 2002. "September 11 and the Mourning After: Reflections on Collecting and Interpreting the History of Tragedy." The Public Historian. 24 (3): 37-52. Find in Worldcat

Greene, Mark A. 2002. ”The Power of Meaning: The Archival Mission in the Postmodern Age." The American Archivist. 65 (1): 42-55. Find in Worldcat

Grider, Sylvia. 2007. ”Public Grief and the Politics of Memorial: Contesting the Memory of ‘the Shooters’ at Columbine High School." Anthropology Today. 23 (3): 3-7. Find in Worldcat

Grider, Sylvia. n.d. "Spontaneous Shrines: A Modern Response to Tragedy and Disaster." NewFolk. Find in Worldcat

Haney, C. Allen, Christina Leimer and Juliann Lowery. 1997. "Spontaneous Memorialization: Violent Death and Emerging Mourning Ritual." OMEGA Journal of Death and Dying. 35 (2): 159-171. Find in Worldcat

Haskins, Ekaterina. 2007. "Between Archive and Participation: Public Memory in a Digital Age." Rhetoric Society Quarterly. 37 (4): 401-422. Find on Worldcat

Hellum, Asbjorn. 2013. "Crowdsourcing and the Modern Archives." Nordisk Arkivnyt. 58 (2): 67-68.

Herrada, Julie. 2003. "Letters to the Unibomber: A Case Study and Some Reflections." Archival Issues: Journal of the Midwest Archives Conference. 28 (1): 35-46.

Jacobsen, Trond, RicardoL Punzalan and MargaretL Hedstrom. 2013. “Invoking “Collective Memory”: Mapping the Emergence of a Concept in Archival Science." Archival Science. 13 (2-3): 217-251. Find in Worldcat

Jan Margry, Peter and Cristina Sanchez-Carretero. 2007. "Memorializing Traumatic Death." Anthropology Today. 23 (3): 1-2.

Jenkings, K. N., N. Megoran, R. Woodward and D. Bos. 2012. "Wootton Bassett and the Political Spaces of Remembrance Mourning." Area. 44 (3): 356-366. Find in Worldcat

Jones, Kevin, Kenneth Zagacki and Todd Lewis. 2007. "Communication, Liminality, and Hope: The September 11th Missing Person Posters." Communication Studies. 58 (1): 105-121. Find in Worldcat

Jorgensen-Earp, Cheryl R. and Lori A. Lanzilotti. 1998. "Public Memory and Private Grief: The Construction of Shrines at the Sites of Public Tragedy." Quarterly Journal of Speech. 84 (2): 150-70. Find in Worldcat

Josias, Anthea. 2011. "Toward an Understanding of Archives as a Feature of Collective Memory." Archival Science. 11 (1-2): 95-112. Find in Worldcat

Kakiguchi, Yaeko. 2011. "Memories, Photos and Documents of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami in 2011." Focus on International Library and Information Work. 42 (2): 61-63.

Kitch, Carolyn. 2000. "'A News of Feeling as Well as Fact'. Mourning and Memorial in American Newsmagazines." Journalism. 1 (2): 171-195. Find in Worldcat

Klaassens, M., P. D. Groote and F. M. Vanclay. 2013. "Expressions of Private Mourning in Public Spaces: The Evolving Structure of Spontaneous and Permanent Roadside Memorials in the Netherlands." Death Studies. 18 (11): 145-171. Find in Worldcat

Levin, Jack and Eric Madfis. 2009. "Mass Murder at School and Cumulative Strain." American Behavioral Scientist. 52 (9): 1227-1245. Find in Worldcat

Otto, S. 2014. "A Garden from Ashes: The Post-9/11 Manhattan City-Shrine, the Triangle Fire Memorial March, and the Educative Value of Mourning." Journal of Social History. 47 (3): 573-592.

Pearson, David. 2005. "New York Stories." Museums Journal. 105 (9): 30-334.

Perkins, Mark. 2009. "Guidance on the Management of Controversial Material in Public Libraries." Focus on International Library and Information Work. 40 (1): 18-19.

Purcell, Aaron D. 2012. "More than Flowers Left behind: Building an Archival Collection and Remembering April 16, 2007 at Virginia Tech." Journal of Archival Organization. 10 (3-4): 231-242. Find on Worldcat

Rhodes, Tamara. 2014. "A Living, Breathing Revolution: How Libraries Can Use ‘Living Archives’ to Support, Engage, and Document Social Movements." IFLA Journal. 40 (1): 5-11. Find in Worldcat

Scheen, Ellen. 2011. "Collection of Memory Material after the Terrorist Attacks." Nordisk Arkivnyt. 56 (3): 107-108.

Schwartz, Joan M. and Terry Cook. 2002. "Archives, Records, and Power: The Making of Modern Memory." Archival Science. 2 (1-2): 1-19. Find in Worldcat

Senie, Harriet F. 2002. "A Difference in Kind: Spontaneous Memorials after 9/11." Sculpture Magazine.

Senie, Harriet F. 1999. "Mourning in Protest: Spontaneous Memorials and the Sacrilization of Space." Harvard Design Magazine: 23-27.

Shelton, Kay. 2009. "Using Facebook Following Tragedies: A Lesson for Community Colleges." Community & Junior College Libraries. 15 (4): 195-203. Find in Worldcat

Smith, Sharman Bridges. 2006. "Observations of Ground Zero: From the Outside." Public Library Quarterly. 25 (3/4): 151-157. Find in Worldcat

Spencer, J. and Glenn Muschert. 2009. "The Contested Meaning of the Crosses at Columbine." American Behavioral Scientist. 52 (10): 1371-1386. Find in Worldcat

Stengs, Irene. 2003. "Ephemeral Memorials against 'Senseless Violence': Materialisations of Public Outcry." Etnofoor. 16 (2): 26-40. Find in Worldcat

Stevens, M. E. 2001. "Voices from Vietnam: Building a Collection from a Controversial War." American Archivist. 64 (1): 115-120. Find in Worldcat

Vassilakaki, Evgenia and Emmanouel Garoufallou. 2014. "The Impact of Facebook on Libraries and Librarians: A Review of the Literature." Program: Electronic Library & Information Systems. 48 (3): 226-245. Find in Worldcat

Wallace, David A and Lance Stuchell. 2011. "Understanding the 9/11 Commission Archive: Control, Access, and the Politics of Manipulation." Archival Science. 11 (1-2): 125-168. Find in Worldcat

Walsh-Childers, Kim, Norman Lewis and Jeffrey Neely. 2011. "Listeners, Not Leeches: What Virginia Tech Survivors Needed from Journalists." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 26 (3): 191-205. Find in Worldcat

Zastrow, Jan. 2014. "The Digital Archivist. Crowdsourcing Cultural Heritage: 'Citizen Archivists' for the Future." Computers in Libraries. 34 (8): 21-23. Find in Worldcat


Jones, Mother. 2013. "Letters to Newtown," [Web Video]. Accessed February 2, 2013.

Online Collections

George Mason University and University of New Orleans. 2012. "Hurricane Digital Memory Bank."

MacDonald, Ross and Mother Jones In Letters to Newtown, edited by Ross MacDonald, 2014. Newtown, CT, 2013.

"Our Marathon: The Boston Bombing Digital Archive & WBUR Oral History Project." 2015. Northeastern University Libraries.     Find in Worldcat

Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies. n.d. "The Digital Archive of Japan's 2011 Disasters."

Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media and American Social History Project/Center for Media and Learning. 2014. "September 11 digital archive".     Find in Worldcat

University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State. "Virginia Tech April 16, 2007 Archives of the University Libraries." Last modified August 28, 2014. Accessed September 25, 2014.    Find in Worldcat

University, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State. "Virginia Tech April 16, 2007 Archives of the University Libraries, Ms2008-020", Special Collections

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