Jewish Histories in Multiethnic Boyle Heights

Citations and Additional Resources

This path was written and curated by Caroline Luce and Maxwell Greenberg. The Census Visualization was created by Caroline Luce and Albert Kochaphum, with help from David Wu. Mapping/Listening to Boyle Heights was created by Albert Kochaphum and Jonathan Banfill. Special thanks to Max Baumgarten, who's digital exhibit, "In Search of Fairfax," served as a source of inspiration. The maps and photographs included come from the Shades of L.A. Collection of the Los Angeles Public Library, the Boyle Heights Historical Society blog, UCLA Library Special Collections, the Los Angeles City Archives, Cal State Los Angeles Special Collections, and other community partners.


1 "BOYLE HEIGHTS.: BRIEF SKETCH OF A DELIGHTFUL SUBURB - and Something About the Men Who Pioneered It and Built It Up," Los Angeles Times, Aug 4, 1889, 10.

2 Douglas Flamming, Bound for Freedom: Black Los Angeles in Jim Crow America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006), 69.

3 Flamming, Bound for Freedom, 25-26, 66-67; Alison Rose Jefferson, Living the California Dream: African American Leisure Sites During the Jim Crow Era (Omaha: University of Nebraska Press, 2020), 258, and “Leisure’s Race Power and Place: The recreation and Remembrance of African Americans in the California Dream” (PhD diss., UCSB 2015), 301-304. See also Charlotta Bass, Forty Years, Memoirs From the Pages of a Newspaper (Los Angeles, CA: Published by Charlotta Bass, 1960), 17-18.

4 Wendy Elliot-Scheinberg, “Boyle Heights: Jewish Ambiance in a Multi-Ethnic Neighborhood” (PhD diss., Claremont Graduate University, 2001), 110-112.

5 Gustafson, Cloyd V. “An Ecological Analysis of the Hollenbeck Area of Los Angeles” (Masters Thesis, University of Southern California, 1940), 44, 46.

6 Gustafson, “An Ecological Survey of the Hollenbeck Area,” 104.

7 George J. Sánchez, “Race and Immigration in Changing Communities: The Case of Boyle Heights,” in The Boyle Heights Oral History Project: a Multiethnic and Collaborative Exploration of a Los Angeles Neighborhood (Los Angeles: Japanese American National Museum, 2002), 23.

8 George J. Sánchez, "'What's Good for Boyle Heights is Good for Jews': Creating Multiculturalism on the Eastside," American Quarterly 56, no. 3 (2004): 633-634.

9 Genevieve Carpio, "Unexpected Allies: David C. Marcus and His Impact on the Advancement of Civil Rights in the Mexican-American Legal Landscape of Southern California," in Beyond Alliances: The Jewish Role in Reshaping the Racial Landscape of Southern California, ed. George J. Sánchez, Annual Review of the Casden Institute for the Study of the Jewish Role in American Life, vol. 9 (Los Angeles: USC Casden Institute for the Study of the Jewish Role in American Life, 2021): 1, 2.

10 Richard Rothstein, The Color of Law: A Forgotten History of How Our Government Segregated America (New York: W. W. Norton/Liverlight, 2017).

11 Shana Beth Bernstein, Bridges of Reform: Interracial Civil Rights Activism in Twentieth Century Los Angeles (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011), 146, 154-156.

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