It is important to keep in mind that Cumsingmoon represented only a little over 2.5% of the total number of vessels departing from China with indentured laborers. In both graphs, Latin America encompasses Cuba, Peru, Chile, the British Caribbean colonies, French Guiana, Martinique, Guadeloupe, and various other colonies.
Mutiny varied by port of departure. Stricter regulation of emigration from British (Hong Kong) and Portuguese (Macau) colonies’ ports resulted in lower incidence rates of mutinies aboard those ships. However, the other ports experienced more mutinies as kidnapping and bribes went undeterred. Specifically, at the time, Cumsingmoon was an opium depot, further promoting its extremely high mutiny rate, as corruption was pervasive.
1. Meagher, Arnold Joseph. The Introduction of Chinese Laborers to Latin America: The" Coolie Trade", 1847-1874. University of California, Davis., 1975. 185-202.
2. Northrup, David. Indentured Labor In the Age of Imperialism, 1834-1922. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 55.
3. Christopher, Emma, Cassandra Pybus, and Marcus Rediker. “La Trata Amarilla.” Many Middle Passages: Forced Migration and the Making of the Modern World. Berkeley: U of California, 2007. 168.