during the middle ages1 2022-03-21T06:28:31-07:00 Jeanne Britton e120651dde677d5cf1fd515358b14d86eb289f11 22849 1 plain 2022-03-21T06:28:31-07:00 Jeanne Britton e120651dde677d5cf1fd515358b14d86eb289f11
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Interior view of the so-called Temple of the Tosse near Tivoli
Veduta interna del Tempio della Tosse costruito di mattoni e di tufi
Title: Veduta interna del Tempio della Tosse costruito di mattoni e di tufi. Key: A Muri co’ quali erano state riturate le finestre ne ’tempi bassi Signature: In Roma presso l’Autore. Signature 2: Piranesi F(ecit).
Title: Interior view of the Tempio della Tosse constructed of brick and tufa. Key: A Walls that were closed up in the low times [dark ages]. Signature: Published by the Author in Rome. Signature 2: Made by Piranesi.
This interior view of the same structure seen in the previous engraving is a dramatic recreation of entering an ancient interior space. Piranesi’s interior views, much more than those of earlier or contemporary artists, are “acutely sensitive to the powerful effects of envelopment that come from actually entering Roman spaces” (Pinto 2012, 111). A structure of unknown function, the so-called “Temple of the Cough” bears an oculus and cupola similar to those of the Pantheon, whose interior Piranesi depicts with sunlight falling at a similar angle. The portrait orientation of this image—uncommon in the Vedute di Roma—emphasizes the building’s height. The arch in the foreground almost frames the interior space symmetrically, with the light that is cast on its right side effacing the visual balance on each side of the image. It is as if we are stumbling upon this evenly framed interior space rather than studiously composing a symmetrical view. In the image’s caption, another shadow yields different effects through trompe-l’œil that speak to Piranesi’s combinations of image and text.
The only annotated items are the structure’s windows, which, the caption informs us, were filled in during the Middle ages. Using what is now a contemptuous term for late antiquity or the Middle Ages (“tempi bassi”), he attempts to date the structure’s different phases based on building materials—“mattoni” and “tufa”. In other engravings of ancient structures, he attempts to date similar interventions to the “low times” or “tempi bassi” by using building materials as evidence. In the caption to the above image, the visual presentation of this phrase suggests his disdain for this period. Two fragments of a fluted column and other thick blocks of stone hover over the caption, casting a shadow between Piranesi’s words in ways that seem to collaborate with his text.
Throughout his works, fragments function in different ways, as documents in archaeological study or, alternatively, as metaphors in his visionary creations (Pinto 2012, 143). Here, they seem to function grammatically, almost as punctuation. The shadow creates a division between the view’s long title, separating the shorter, independent phrase “Veduta interna del Tempio della Tosse” from its continuation after the shadow, “costruito di mattoni e di tufi.” The text corresponding to “A” is likewise divided between “Muri co’ quali erano state riturate le finestre” and the historical designation “ne ’tempi bassi.” It is also worth noting that the careful recreation of the material surface on the lower right of the image—the bricks and tufa that are noted but not specifically labelled in the caption—makes visual evidence so prominent that it seems to need no dedicated annotation (Pinto 2012, 106-7). In this verbal caption’s visual composition, image and text collaborate, in the seemingly casual placement of a shadow, so as to further separate Piranesi’s efforts to analyze and historicize, based on material evidence, from the persistent legends of the “low” times. (JB)
To see this image in the Vedute di Roma, volume 17 of Piranesi’s Opere, click here.