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View of the Mausoleum of the Emperor Hadrian
12020-02-20T06:55:38-08:00Avery Freemanb9edcb567e2471c9ec37caa50383522b90999cba228491from Volume 16 of Giovanni Battista Piranesi's Opereplain2020-02-20T06:55:38-08:00Internet Archivepiranesi-ia-vol16-054.jpgimageAvery Freemanb9edcb567e2471c9ec37caa50383522b90999cba
12019-02-15T16:26:18-08:00View of the Mausoleum of the Emperor Hadrian, now called Castel Sant’Angelo18Veduta del Mausoleo d’Elio Adriano (ora chiamato Castello Sant' Angelo)plain2023-06-20T11:55:34-07:00Title: VEDUTA del Mausoleo d’Elio Adriano (ora chiamato Castello Sant'Angelo) nella parte opposta alla Facciata dentro al Castello. Key: A Avanzo del Masso antico. B Copertura moderna di mattoni sopra l’antico Masso. C Bocche di Artiglieria collocata nel Corritojo, che gira all’interno. D Loggia diametralmente opposta alla Facciata del Mausoleo. E Carceri per le persone riguardevoli. F Archivio. G Maschietto. H Angelo di metallo. I Baloardi fatti piantare dal Pontefice Alessandro VI. K Corritojo fabbricato parimente per ordine dello stesso; e poscia fatto coprire da Urbano VIII. Questo corritojo è sostenuto da gran numero d’Archi, e dal Palazzo Vaticano conduce sino dentro al Maschio. L Ponte levatore del Corritojo. M Polveriera. N Cordonata, la quale porta sopra i Terrapieni, e sopra le Mura del principale Recinto del Castello. O Recinto di Mura, e Baloardi, che circonda il Maschio. P Armeria. Q Abitazione per gli Ufiziali, e Soldati. R Altra Polveriera. Signature: Presso l’Autore a Strada Felice vicino alla Trinità de’Monti. Signature 2: Piranesi Archit(etto). dis(egnavit). et inc(idit).Title: VIEW of the Mausoleum of the Emperor Hadrian (now called Castel Sant'Angelo) on the opposite side of the facade within the Castle Key: A Ruin of the ancient Mass. B Modern layer of bricks over the ancient Mass. C. Openings for the artillery located in the Corridor, that turns from inside [the castle]. D Loggia diametrically opposite to the Façade of the Mausoleum. E. Prisons for persons of high regard. F. Archive. G. Little tower. H. Angel made of metal. I Bulwarks installed by Pope Alexander VI. K. Corridor also built on the orders of the same Pope; and later covered by Urban VIII. This corridor is held up by a large number of Arches, and leads from the Vatican Palace to inside the Tower. L. Drawbridge of the Corridor. M. Store of gun powder. N. Ramp which leads above the ramparts, and above the Wall of the principal Perimeter of the Castle. O Perimeter of the Walls, and Bulwarks, that surround the Tower. P Armory. Q Residence of the Officials, and Soldiers. R Another store of gun powder. Signature: Published by the Author on the Strada Felice near Trinità de’ Monti. Signature 2: Drawn and engraved by the Architect Piranesi.In this second view of Castel Sant’Angelo, Piranesi expands upon the architectural history of the monument, showing its transformation from an ancient tomb into a papal fortress. In contrast to his other views of Hadrian’s tomb, Piranesi focuses not on the ancient structure below (labeled “A”) but its modern use as a military installation. The pile of ancient fragments often found in the foreground of Piranesi’s etchings has been replaced by neat pyramids of cannonballs, war drums, and flags. Looking above, we see the cannons strategically positioned (“C”) below the highest tower (“G”) and adjacent to the prison (“E”). Further demonstrating the extent of the church’s military power, Piranesi visually and alphabetically catalogs every detail of the fortress. Heavily fortified walls (“O”) are punctuated by robust bulwarks (“I”), while armed guards survey the grounds and signal to the soldiers below. A drawbridge (“L”) is elevated, protecting the interior, and blocking access to the bridge (“K”) which leads directly to the Vatican, and the Pope by extension. Multiple armories (“P”) and storehouses of gun powder (“M” and “R”) appear on opposite ends of the massive complex, which, taken in its entirety, barely fits into the frame of the etching. At the center of the image two large markers identify a ramp (“N”) from which one can either ascend to the ramparts or reenter the city. Piranesi positions viewers at the end of the ramp, outside the physical and symbolic space of the papal fortress. From this oblique perspective, viewers are given visual access into a typically restricted area, as the sequence of bridges, gates, barriers, and blockades close the space off from the rest of the city (San Juan 180). The behemoth dimensions of the fortress, heightened by Piranesi’s use of the worm’s eye view, cast a long shadow across the city, reminding us that the military might of the papacy extends far beyond its walls.
Many elements of the composition recall Piranesi’s Carceri d’invenzione [Imaginary Prisons].Fallen wooden beams, cannons, ladders leading into darkness, impenetrable towers, and elevated drawbridges, turbulent clouds, as well as the thick and deeply etched lines are all prominent features of the Carceri (and can be seen here). Castel Sant’Angelo was of course an actual prison, not an imaginary one. However, Piranesi’s manipulation of light and perspective in the view evokes the dark, fantastical, and mysterious tone of the Carceri d’invenzione.At the same time, the angel on the topmost tower of the fortress is illuminated by light, looking toward the bridge where prisoners were freed, and processions of the conclave would announce a new pope. The election of a pope was celebrated with a firework display called the girandola, showing a non-military use of the cannons in the foreground. The layers of architecture reflect the multiple histories and functions of the space: it was a tomb, papal residence, prison, citadel, meeting place for the conclave, and a place of spectacle. While the focus of the print may be its modern function as a fortress, Piranesi also captures the complicated web of memory exposed and contained in the tomb’s bricks and marble blocks, akin to Freud’s impression of the Castel Sant’Angelo as described in the previous essay. (ZL)
To see this image in the Vedute di Roma, volume 16 of Piranesi’s Opere, click here.