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Remains of the Temple of the God Canopus at Hadrian's Villa in Tivoli
12019-11-11T16:57:46-08:00Avery Freemanb9edcb567e2471c9ec37caa50383522b90999cba228491from Volume 17 of Giovanni Battista Piranesi's Opereplain2019-11-11T16:57:46-08:00Internet ArchivedatapiranesiRescan_vol17_0397.jpgAvery Freemanb9edcb567e2471c9ec37caa50383522b90999cba
12018-11-07T17:41:32-08:00Remains of the Temple of the God Canopus at Hadrian’s Villa in Tivoli10Avanzi del Tempio del Dio Canopo nella Villa Adriana in Tivoliplain2020-12-21T13:31:26-08:00Title: Avanzi del Tempio del Dio Canopo nella Villa Adriana in Tivoli Key: A. Nicchie e fontane che erano rinvestite di tartari. B. Volta ch’ era ricoperta di mosaici bianchi, e di altri colori. Le parieti C. erano rinvestite di lastre di marmo. Il didietro di questo tempio è circondato di conserve d’acqua e di natazioni. Da tali contrasegni crederei ch’egli dovesse appartenere al Dio Nettuno piu che ad altra Deità. D. Due gran macigni caduti dalla Volta Signature: Cavaliere Piranesi delin(eavit). e inc(idit).Title: Remains of the Temple of the God Canopus at Hadrian’s Villa in Tivoli. Key: A. Niches and fountains that were decorated with plasters. B Vault that was covered with white mosaics, and other colors. The walls C. were vested with sheets of marble. The rear of the temple is surrounded by water preserves and pools. From such markings, I would believe that it [this Temple] must belong to Neptune more than any other deity. D Two large stone blocks that fell from the Vault. Signature: Designed and engraved by the Knight Piranesi.
This and the following image reveal Piranesi’s close involvement in the archaeological study of a structure at Hadrian’s Villa that was and continues to be a challenge to identify. Titled “Ruins of the Temple of the god Canopus in Hadrian’s Villa at Tivoli,” this print argues in its key that the temple must in fact belong not to Canopus but to Neptune: “crederei ch’egli dovesse appartenere al Dio Nettuno” [I would believe that it must belong to the God Neptune]. The conditional belief that Piranesi articulates in the annotation is justified. The name Canopus (the pilot of a ship in the Trojan War) appears in an ancient historical text as that of an unspecified structure at Hadrian’s Villa. It is unclear which building bore the name, and this structure is now believed to have been an open dining area (or scenic triclinium) with a vaulted ceiling, of which a portion collapsed. In its visual and verbal elements, this image alternates between certainty and conjecture, visual display and inaccessibility. The symmetrical boulders of the collapsed ceiling “close the foreground” (Pinto 1995, 258) of this image, creating an imposing boundary that makes the image seem inaccessible to viewers (Verschaffel 129). The fallen ceiling, the standing ruin, and the key also create three levels of symmetry. At the center of this visually balanced image, three human figures, facing each other in a sliver of white ground, create a sense of inaccessibility. At odds with this visual symmetry and enclosure, two figures in the foreground, in front of the fallen vault, gesture dramatically with both arms towards the left of the image, and a third man glances over his shoulder in the same direction. If, as viewers, we are not asked to join the circle of the three men at the center of the image, we are certainly invited to follow the vertical line created by the gestures and glance of the three men in the foreground. Doing so, we see the letter D, which points to the key, where Piranesi conclusively identifies the fallen vault. The other alphabetic annotations all mark the temple’s materials and decorative elements, until an additional sentence that is separate from any alphabetic pointer suggests, based on absent evidence on the other side of the temple, a different designation for the temple. This word-image composite displays not only an ancient ruin but also a process of conjecture about architectural and historical details that are either accessible or unknown. (JB)
To see this image in the Vedute di Roma, volume 17 of Piranesi’s Opere, click here.