The Archaeology of Complex Societies: A project presented by the graduate students of The Ohio State University Department of Anthropology

Further Reading

Unfortunately in this exhibit we simply can’t include all the available information about different theoretical paradigms and archaeological sites. However, if you are interested in learning more about complex societies, archaeology in general, or the specific civilizations mentioned in the case studies, here are some articles, books, and websites that you can go to for more information.

For more information on case studies:

Andrushko, V.A., and J.W. Verano. 2008 Prehistoric trepanation in the Cuzco region of Peru: A view into an ancient Andean practice. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 137(1): 4–13.

Bauer, B. S. 1996 Legitimization of the State in Inca Myth and Ritual. American Anthropologist. 98(2): 327-337

Bauer, B.S., and R.A. Covey. 2002 Processes of State Formation in the Inca Heartland (Cuzco, Peru). American Anthropologist 104(3): 846–864.

Breunig, P. 2013 Nok: African Sculpture in Archaeological Context. Africa Magna Verlag, Frankfurt Germany.

Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site. 2016. Explore. Electronic document,

Cartwright, M. 2012 Trade in Ancient Greece. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited.

Cartwright, M. 2015 Cusco. Ancient History Encyclopedia. January 30.

Çatalhöyük research project:

Clayton, S.C. 2005. Interregional Relationships in Mesoamerican: Interpreting Maya Ceramics at Teotihuacan. Latin American Antiquity 16(4): 427-448.

D'Altroy, T.N., and T.K. Earle. 1985 Staple Finance, Wealth Finance, and Storage in the Inka Political Economy. Current Anthropology 26(2): 187–206.

Dillehay, Tom D. 1977 Tawantinsuyu Integration of the Chillon Valley, Peru: A Case of Inca Geo-Political Mastery. Journal of Field Archaeology 4(4): 397-405.

Fagan, Brian. 2005. Ancient North America: The Archaeology of a Continent. 4th edition. Thames and Hudson: London.

Fagg, B. 1969 Recent work in West Africa: New light on the Nok Culture. World Archaeology 1(1): 41-50.

Hodder, Ian. 2004 Women and men at Çatalhöyük. Scientific American 290: 66–73.

Hodder, Ian. 2004 A season of great finds and new faces at Çatalhöyük. Anatolian Archaeology 10: 8-10.

Iseminger, William. 2010    Cahokia Mounds: America’s First City. The History Press:Charleston.

Kinni, T. 2015 What We Can Learn from Ancient Athens' Manufacturing Industry. Stanford Graduate School of Business. Stanford, California.

Larsen, Clark Spencer, S.W Hillson, B. Boz, M.A. Pilloud, J.W. Sadvari, and S.C. Agarwal. 2015 Bioarchaeology of neolithic Çatalhöyük: Lives and lifestyles of an early farming society in transition. Journal of World Prehistory 28(1):27-68.

Lewis and Stout. 1998    Mississippian Towns and Sacred Spaces:Searching for an Architectural Grammar. University of Alabama Press: Tuscaloosa.

Manzanilla, L. 1996. Corporate Groups and Domestic Activities at Teotihuacan. Latin American Antiguity 17(3):228-246.  

Martin, T. 1996 Ancient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Milner, George. 2006    The Cahokia Chiefdom: The Archaeology of a Mississippian Society. University Press of Florida:Gainesville.

Pauketat, Timothy and Thomas Emerson.
1997    Cahokia: Domination and Ideology in the Mississippian World. University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln.

Pauketat, Timothy. 2004 Ancient Cahokia and the Mississippians. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.

Plutarch. 1960 The Rise and Fall of Athens: Nine Greek Lives. Translated by I. Scott- Kilvert. Randomhouse, New York.

Quilter, J, and T. Stocker. 1983 Subsistence Economies and the Origins of Andean Complex Societies. American Anthropologist 85(3): 545–562.

Rainey, A.F. 1965. The Kingdom of Ugarit. The Biblical Archaeologist 28(4):101-125.

Roberts, J.W. 1998. City of Socrates. Routledge, London.

Spence, M.W. 1996. Commodity or Gift: Teotihuacan Obsidian in the Maya Region. Latin American Antiquity 7(1):21-39.

Vanderpool, E. and B. Ehrlich. 2016 “Athens” in Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica, Ltd.

Vidal, Jordi. 2006 Urgarit and the Southern Levantine Sea-Ports. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient. 49(3): 269-279.

Yon, Marguerite. 2000 Ugarit: 6,000 Years of History. Near Eastern Archaeologist. 63(4): 186-189

For more information on social theory:
Barton, C Michael. 2014. Complexity, Social Complexity and Modeling. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 21: 306-324.

Childe, V Gordon. 1950. The Urban Revolution. Town Planning Review 21: 3-17.

Crumley, Carole. 1995. Heterarchy and the Analysis of Complex Societies. I
n Heterarchy and the Analysis of Complex Societies. Archaeological Papers of the American Anthropological Association.

Friedman, Jonathan and Michael J Rowlands. 1977. Notes toward and epigenetic model of the evolution of "civilisation." In The Evolution of Social Systems. London: Duckworth.

Hobbes, Thomas. 1651. (1962). Leviathan, or The Matter, Forme, and Power of a Commonwealth Ecclesiastical and Civil. New York, Macmillan Co.

​Marx, Karl. 1964. Pre-capitalist economic formations. New York: International Publishers.

Morgan, Lewis Henry. 1907. Ancient Societies. New York: H. Holt & Co.

Rousseau, Jean-Jaques. 1972 (1978). On the Social Contract, or Principles of Political Right. New York: St. Martin's Press.

Sahlins, Marshall and Elman R Service. 1960. Evolution and Culture. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Trigger, Bruce. 2003. Understanding Early Civilizations. Cambridge: Cambride University Press.

Wengrow, David. 2008. Prehistories of commodity branding. Current Anthropology 49: 7-34. ​

Image credits:

Cover image provided by Flickr Creative Commons: Misty Mystery Macchu Picchu,

Introduction banner photo provided by Google Earth

Politics of representation banner photo provided by
Çatalhöyük research project on Flickr Creative Commons:

Background images for Introduction and Politics of Representation provided by Flikr Creative Commons, Athens

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