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Birth of An Industry: Blackface Minstrelsy and the Rise of American Animation

Nicholas Sammond, Author

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John Randolph Bray

John Randolph Bray was the founder of Bray Studios, one of the first studios dedicated to animation. He did it all from producing and directing to acting and animating. Bray’s goal was to have four units working on four cartoons at any one time, that way a cartoon that would take a month to finish only took one week! J. R. hired great animators like Raoul Barre, Max Fleischer and Walter Lantz. In 1914 John Randolph Bray and Earl Hurd are granted patents for animation systems using drawings on transparent celluloid sheets and a registration system that kept images steady.

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