Ballads and Performance: The Multimodal Stage in Early Modern England

"The True Form and Shape of Caliban: Monstrosity and Wonder in 'The Tempest'"

In addition to Park and Daston’s study of the changing attitude towards wonders in this period, for studies of monstrous birth ballads, see A. W. Bates, who examines Elizabethan monstrous birth ballads from a medical perspective (“Birth Defects Described in Elizabethan Ballads”); David Cressy, who reviews the extant monstrous birth ballads and pamphlets from the mid-sixteenth to the mid-seventeenth century (Travesties and Transgressions in Tudor and Stuart England); Jennifer Spinks, who looks at three pre-Reformation German broadsides depicting conjoined twins (“Wondrous Monsters”); Aaron Kitch, who ties a series of monstrous birth ballads appearing in England in the 1560s to an increasing anxiety about print and censorship during this decade (“Printing Bastards”); and Julie Crawford, who situates the monstrous birth ballads and pamphlets of this period within the tensions and conflicts fueled by the Protestant Reformation (Marvelous Protestantism).

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