Ballads and Performance: The Multimodal Stage in Early Modern England

"The True Form and Shape of Caliban: Monstrosity and Wonder in 'The Tempest'"

The merging of Miranda and Caliban in science fiction film adaptations suggests a shift in how we continue to reimagine the other. While not directly addressing these Tempest adaptations, Constance Penley offers helpful observations on how the genre of the science fiction film has moved away from the traditional emphasis in classical film on sexual difference to a new emphasis on the difference between human and AI : “In these [science fiction] films the question of sexual difference—a question whose answer is no longer ‘self-evident’—is displaced onto the more remarkable difference between the human and the other” (Penley, “Time Travel, Primal Scene, and the Critical Dystopia,” 72).

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