Ballads and Performance: The Multimodal Stage in Early Modern England

"The True Form and Shape of Caliban: Monstrosity and Wonder in 'The Tempest'"

Daniel Wilson, “The Monster Caliban,” in The Tempest: Critical Essays, edited by Patricia M. Murphy (New York: Routledge, 2001),130. See also John E. Hankins, (“Caliban the Bestial Man”), who sees Caliban as an example of Aristotle’s “bestial man,” and Lisa Hopkins, who argues that Caliban’s association in nineteenth-century criticism with Darwin’s theory of evolution inspired J. R. R. Tolkein in his creation of Gollum in The Lord of the Rings (Hopkins, “Gollum and Caliban: Evolution and Design,” 281). For more recent interpretations of Caliban as half-human, see Harold Bloom, who calls him “Half a Wild Man, half a sea beast” (Shakespeare, 665), and Julia Lupton, who argues that he is a creature not quite human, “a thing always in the process of undergoing creation” (“Creature Caliban,” 1).

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