|was attributed to||prov:wasAttributedTo||http://scalar.usc.edu/works/vm/users/7129|
|title||dcterms:title||Plate XVI: The Tomb of St. Edward the Confessor, King of England|
|was attributed to||prov:wasAttributedTo||http://scalar.usc.edu/works/vm/users/7127|
|object name||iptc:ObjectName||Plate xvi: The Tomb of St. Edward the Confessor, King of England|
|digital creation date||iptc:DigitalCreationDate||20120524|
|digital creation time||iptc:DigitalCreationTime||143010|
|by-line||iptc:By-line||University of Missouri|
|by-line title||iptc:By-lineTitle||Contributor to Vetusta Monumenta|
|city||iptc:City||United States (nation)|
|province-state||iptc:Province-State||Columbia (inhabited place)|
|country-primary location code||iptc:Country-PrimaryLocationCode||Boone (County)|
|country-primary location name||iptc:Country-PrimaryLocationName||840|
|credit||iptc:Credit||Scans by Amy Jones with assistance from Special Collections; University of Missouri Libraries|
|copyright notice||iptc:CopyrightNotice||Copyright 2013; DCMA MU Libraries; University of Missouri 104 Ellis Library; Columbia MO; 65201|
|caption-abstract||iptc:Caption-Abstract||Society of Antiquaries of London; Vertue, George (English printmaker and antiquary, 1684-1756) after Talman, John (English painter, architect, and collector, 1677-1726); 1724; 44.5 x 33.6 cm (double page); Accessioned by Ellis Library Special collections in 1959; DA100.S67 1|
|keywords||iptc:Keywords||Art, English--18th century|
|keywords||iptc:Keywords||Edward, King of England, approximately 1003-1066|
|keywords||iptc:Keywords||copper engraving (printing process)|
|keywords||iptc:Keywords||copper engravings (visual works)|
This page is referenced by:
Plate XVI: The Tomb of St. Edward the Confessor, King of England
Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0
Transcription:Caption: Mausoleum sive Feretrum Sti Eduardi Confessoris Regis Angliae. Marmore Porphyritico et Serpentino Opereque insuper musivo elegantissime ornatum uti hodie in Ecclesia Westmonasteriensi conspicitur. Sumptibus Societatis Antiquariae Londiniensis MDCCXXIV.
On the image: Omnibus Insignis Virtutum Laudibus Heros Sanctus Edwardus.
Translation:Caption: The Tomb, or Feretory, of St Edward the Confessor, King of England. It is decorated with red and green marble and is very elegant, covered with artistic carving. [It is here] as it appears today in the Chapel of Westminster Abbey. SAL 1724.
On the image:
Famed for all virtues, here great Edward lies,
Confessor, king, and saint, [he sought the skies.]
Trans. Alan Benjamin Cheales (1877)
Object:Shrine base and feretory of St Edward at Westminster Abbey, complete by 1279-80. Forming part of a broader collection of monuments at Westminster created under the leadership of the Cosmati family of marblers from Italy, the shrine may be attributed to Petrus civis Romanus (thus identified in the related sanctuary pavement inscription), who may be the same craftsman as Petrus Odoricus (or Pietro di Oderisio). Marble, stone and inlaid cosmatesque ornament.
Provenance and Location:
Commentary [MR assisted by BF]The engraving of the shrine of St Edward the Confessor at Westminster Abbey is the first two-page image in Vetusta Monumenta. Located across two pages, the image demanded the reader turn the book upwards to full appreciate the image, thus marking a decisive break in representation within the series, and indicating a special status for St Edward’s shrine within the volume as a whole. The SAL minutes record that in November 1721 the Fellows decided to commission an engraving after a drawing by John Talman of 1713. The engraving was complete by 1725, when Vertue brought the prints and gave three copies to each Fellow. The decision to publish the engraving in a larger format reflects the elaborate artistry of the monument itself, which comprises polychromatic marble, stone, and inlaid ornamentation. More significant, however, is the historiographical location of Edward the Confessor in the imagination of eighteenth century English antiquarians. King/ St Edward (d. 1066) bridged the Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman periods in England (a role celebrated in the Bayeux Tapestry), and his canonization endowed the Plantagenet house with a significant royal saint and ancestor. Edward was the main commemorative focus of Westminster Abbey, and his special spiritual and dynastic relationship with Henry III (1216-72) has been broadly understood to have inspired the monarch’s campaign to rebuild the abbey from 1220/ 45. The special status awarded to the monument thus reflects its central importance in the contemporary historiographical imagination, in which it represented an originary monument in the formation of English kingship and of the English nation itself.
Located in the centre of the sanctuary at Westminster Abbey, aptly called “an elect and introspective chapel” (Binski 1995: 91), the shrine was the core of the royal necropolis that developed around it in the course of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Immediately to the north was the tomb of Henry III that was built between the sanctuary piers, forming a pair of monuments that manifested the spiritual and familial kinship between royal saint and royal patron. The tomb of Henry III and the shrine base forms part of a celebrated sequence of monuments made by Cosmati marblers at Westminster during the reigns of Henry III (1216-72) and Edward I (1272-1307), which also included the great sanctuary pavement.
The monument was dismantled and partially destroyed in 1540 and reassembled during the reign of Mary I (1553-58). The present feretory replaces a thirteenth century metalwork feretory that was destroyed in 1540 during the dissolution of the monastery. At the same time the marble base of the shrine was likely dismantled and the golden feretory removed, while the remaining gold and jewels were placed in the Royal Treasury. The body of St Edward was removed and kept in an uncertain location by the monks of Westminster Abbey until the restoration of the monastery by Mary I in 1556. In this same year, John de Feckenham was appointed Abbot of the monastery and placed in charge of reconstructing the shrine (completed 1557). J. G. O’Neilly and L. E. Tanner suggest that the current state of the shrine suggests an incorrect assembly by Feckenham, noting several architectural incongruities in the base, including the absence of Cosmati flooring around the shrine step and an improper placement of the upper slabs that disrupts the mosaic patterns (O’Neilly and Tanner 1966: 134-139). The current wooden canopy has traditionally been attributed to Feckenham, but the date of its actual construction remains uncertain. The shrine was further restored to its present condition by the architect Stephen Dykes Bower between the years 1951-1973.
St Edward’s shrine base is almost completely undocumented. As a result, aspects of the constructional sequence for the shrine and its components are debated, as indeed are aspects of the Cosmati work at Westminster in general. Fortunately, Richard Sporley, a monk at Westminster, recorded the inscription in lettering with inlaid blue glass which ran around the top of the shrine base prior to its destruction in 1540. It read:
+ANNO: MILENNO: DOMINI: CVM: SEPTVAGENO: ET: BIS:/ CENTEMO CVM: COMPLETO: QVASI: DENO: HOC: OPVS: EST: FACTVM: QVOD: PETRUS:/ DVXIT: IN: ACTUM: ROMANVS: CIVIS: HOMO:/ CAVSAM: NOSCERE: SI: VIS: REX: FVIT: HENRICUS: SANCTI: PRESENTIS: AMICVS
In the thousandth year of the Lord, with the seventieth and twice the hundredth with the tenth more or less complete this work was made which Peter the Roman citizen brought to completion. O Man, if you wish to know the cause, the king was Henry, the friend of the present saint (trans: Binski 1995: 99).
The inscription records the date of the completion of the monument (1000 + 70 + 200 + c. 10) as 1279/80 and also records its authorship by Peter the Roman. Other aspects of the shrine, namely the metalwork feretory, were recorded as being incomplete in 1269 for the translation of Edward’s remains, and a series of payments were recorded up to 1272. The inscription on the shrine in our engraving appears to be a later addition. Only the first half of the text, from the south side of the shrine, is visible here. 
The present shrine represents the last of a sequence of monuments to Edward the Confessor, beginning with his initial eleventh-century burial represented in the Bayeux Tapestry. Following canonization in 1161, Edward the Confessor’s body was formally translated from a tomb to a shrine in 1163 at Westminster in the presence of Henry II. The appearance of the original shrine and feretory, or perhaps a later version of it, may be recorded in a number of illuminations in the c. 1255 Estoire of St Edward (Cambridge UL MS Ee.3.59), which show pilgrims being healed at the shrine. The representations of the monument are, however, “bewilderingly inconsistent” (Crook 2011: 189), and the representation of shrine base with foramina (similar to that to St Thomas at Canterbury) may represent a generic type of monument rather than the monument itself.
Works Cited:Binski, Paul. 1995. Westminster Abbey and the Plantagenets: Kingship and the Representation of Power 1200-1400. New Haven: Yale UP.
Crook, John. 2011. English Medieval Shrines. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.
O’Neilly, J.G., and L.E. Tanner. 1966. “The Shrine of Edward the Confessor.” Archaeologia 100: 129-54.
Society of Antiquaries of London. 1718-. Minutes of the Society’s Proceedings.
Further Reading:Barlow, Frank. 2011. Edward the Confessor. New Haven and London: Yale UP.
Carter, John. 1890. Architectural Antiquities, Vol. 1. 46-51. London.
Gough, Richard. 1797. Sepulchral monuments in Great Britain applied to illustrate the history of families, manners, habits, and arts,… edited by Richard Gough. Vol.1 in 2 parts, vol.2 in 3 parts. From vol.1. pt.2
Grant, Lindy and Richard Mortimer, eds. 2002. Westminster Abbey: The Cosmati Pavements. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Flete, John. 1909. The History of Westminster Abbey by John Flete, ed J. A. Robinson. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
Nilson, Ben. 1988. Cathedral Shrines of Medieval England, Woodbridge: Boydell.
Vertue, George. 1741. “A Dissertation on the Monument of Edward the Confessor.” Archaeologia I: 32-39.
Quick view of plates in Volume One
- Title page and Table of contents [page 3 and page 4] (scholarly commentary)
- Plate i: A bronze lamp excavated from St. Leonard's Hill near Windsor (scholarly commentary)
- Plate ii: Horn of Ulf (scholarly commentary)
- Plate iii: Baptismal Font, in St. James' Church, Westminster (scholarly commentary)
- Plate iv: Ancient image of Richard II, King of England (scholarly commentary)
- Plate v: Three ancient figures (scholarly commentary)
- Plate vi: Ruins of Walsingham Abbey in the county of Norfolk (scholarly commentary)
- Plate vii: Waltham Cross, in the county of Middlesex (scholarly commentary)
- Plate viii: The ruins of the walls and city of Verulamium [St. Alban's] in the county of Hertford (scholarly commentary)
- Plates ix, x, xi and xii: Fountains Abbey in the county of York (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xiii and xiv:Three views of the Gate of St. Bennet’s Abbey in Norfolk, in two plates (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xv: The Tomb of Robart Colles and Cecili, his wif (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xvi: The Tomb of St. Edward the Confessor, King of England (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xvii: The North Front of the Gate at Whitehall (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xviii: The North Front of King's Street Gate (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xix: Plans of the two proceeding Gates, in one Plate (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xx: Coins of Henry VIII, Elizabeth and James I, Kings of England: Likewise, and image of Elizabeth Expressed in encaustic work (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xxi: Excerpt from Edward Hall's Chronicle of Henry VIII (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xxii, xxiii, xxiv, xxv and xxvi: The Tournament of Henry VIII, February 12, 1510: Ingraved from an ancient roll in the Heralds Office, London in six plates. A-S (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xxvii: The present day appearance of Furness Abbey in the county of Lancashire (scholarly commentary)
- Plates xxviii, xxix, xxx, xxxi, xxxii and xxxiii: Letters from the English Barons to Boniface VIII (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xxxiv: Head gilded from bronze, of ancient work, excavated at Aquae Sulis (Bath) (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xxxv: Distant view of Colchester Castle, Essex
- Plate xxxvi: Ground plan, south and east prospects of Colchester Castle
- Plate xxxvii: A table of English silver coins
- Plate xxxviii: A table of English gold coins
- Plate xxxix: Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xl: Melbourne Castle, Derbyshire (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xli: Lancaster Castle, Lancashire (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xlii: Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xliii: Coins struck in France and Flanders relating to the History of England
- Plate xliv: Knaresborough Castle, Yorkshire
- Plate xlv: Image of the greatly revered Thomas Tanner, Bishop of St. Asaph's and not long ago a most worthy associate of this society
- Plate xlvi: Tickhill an old castle
- Plate xlvii: A plan of the Roman roads in Yorkshire (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xlviii: Coins struck in France and Flanders relating to the History of England (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xlix: Ancient chapel adjoining to the Bishops palace at Hereford
- Plates L, LI and LII : Roman mosaic peacock (scholarly commentary)
- Plate liii: Antient seals
- Plate liv: Antient seals
- Plate lv: Fronts and backs of medals and gold coins
- Plate lvi: Gold and silver coins annotated with weights and values
- Plate LVII: Hypocaustum Romanun Lincolniae (scholarly commentary)
- Plate lviii: Antient seals
- Plate lix: Antient seals
- Plate lx: Antient seals
- Plate lxi: Winchester Cross
- Plate lxii: Decree imposed against the papal jurisdiction in England in the year 1534
- Plate lxiii: True and exact draft of the Tower Liberties
- Plate lxiv: Chichester cross
- Plate lxv: Astianax vicit Kalendio
- Plate lxvi: Portrait of Robert Cotton
- Plate lxvii: "Bibliothecae Cognominiis conditoris, Effigies, Ad archetypum opera depictum accurate expressa "
- Plate lxviii: Codice Geneseos Cottoniano Dissertatio Historica (excerpt)
- Plate lxix: Codice Geneseos Cottoniano Dissertatio Historica (excerpt)
- Plate lxx: Fragmentorum codicis Cottoniani libri Geneseos Tabula I
- Plate lxx: Fragmentorum codicis Cottoniani libri Geneseos Tabula II
- Standard of weights and measures in the Exchequer
- "View of the Court of Wards and Liveries with the Officers, Servants and other Persons there Assembled"
- Brief account of the Court of Wards and Liveries [page 1]
- Brief account of the Court of Wards and Liveries [page 2]
- Brief account of the Court of Wards and Liveries [page 3]
- 1 2016-02-23T09:45:41+00:00 Westminster Abbey | Objects held at Westminster Abbey 7 Plate IV | Plate XVI plain 2018-02-28T11:00:38+00:00 Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 51.5000,-0.1167