|was attributed to||prov:wasAttributedTo||http://scalar.usc.edu/works/vm/users/7129|
|title||dcterms:title||Plate X: Fountains Abbey in the county of York, four diverse sides of the ruins. N.1-4|
|description||dcterms:description||East side of Fountains Abbey Church [dzi (01.18.16)]|
|was attributed to||prov:wasAttributedTo||http://scalar.usc.edu/works/vm/users/7129|
|object name||iptc:ObjectName||Plate x: Fountains Abbey in the county of York, four diverse sides of the ruins. N.1-4|
|digital creation date||iptc:DigitalCreationDate||20120312|
|digital creation time||iptc:DigitalCreationTime||121510|
|by-line||iptc:By-line||University of Missouri Columbia|
|by-line title||iptc:By-lineTitle||Contributor to Vetusta Monumenta|
|city||iptc:City||Columbia (imhabited place)|
|country-primary location code||iptc:Country-PrimaryLocationCode||840|
|country-primary location name||iptc:Country-PrimaryLocationName||United States (nation)|
|credit||iptc:Credit||Scans by Amy Jones with assistance from Special Collections; University of Missouri Libraries|
|copyright notice||iptc:CopyrightNotice||Copyright 2013; DCMA MU Libraries; University of Missouri 104 Ellis Library; Columbia MO; 65201|
|caption-abstract||iptc:Caption-Abstract||Society of Antiquaries of London; Vertue, George (English printmaker and antiquary, 1684-1756) after Buck, Samuel (English printmaker, 1696-1779); 1722; 36.4 x 18.9 cm; Accessioned by Ellis Library Special collections in 1959; DA100.S67 1|
|keywords||iptc:Keywords||Art, English--18th century|
|keywords||iptc:Keywords||copper engravings (visual works)|
|keywords||iptc:Keywords||copper engraving (printing process)|
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- 1 2018-03-03T20:28:44+00:00 Craig Dietrich 2d66800a3e5a1eaee3a9ca2f91f391c8a6893490 Vestusta Monumenta Craig Dietrich 8 structured_gallery 2018-03-03T21:32:38+00:00 Craig Dietrich 2d66800a3e5a1eaee3a9ca2f91f391c8a6893490
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- 1 2015-07-11T17:02:11+00:00 Craig Dietrich 2d66800a3e5a1eaee3a9ca2f91f391c8a6893490 Plate VI: Ruins of Walsingham Abbey in the County of Norfolk 22 Scholarly commentary plain 2018-01-05T15:08:54+00:00 Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0 52.9000, 0.8840 Noah Heringman ed5eca6418903b1281787a0c30645d943ca84184
This page is referenced by:
Quick view of plates in Volume One
- Title page and Table of contents [page 3 and page 4] (scholarly commentary)
- Plate i: A bronze lamp excavated from St. Leonard's Hill near Windsor (scholarly commentary)
- Plate ii: Horn of Ulf (scholarly commentary)
- Plate iii: Baptismal Font, in St. James' Church, Westminster (scholarly commentary)
- Plate iv: Ancient image of Richard II, King of England (scholarly commentary)
- Plate v: Three ancient figures (scholarly commentary)
- Plate vi: Ruins of Walsingham Abbey in the county of Norfolk (scholarly commentary)
- Plate vii: Waltham Cross, in the county of Middlesex (scholarly commentary)
- Plate viii: The ruins of the walls and city of Verulamium [St. Alban's] in the county of Hertford (scholarly commentary)
- Plates ix, x, xi and xii: Fountains Abbey in the county of York (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xiii and xiv:Three views of the Gate of St. Bennet’s Abbey in Norfolk, in two plates (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xv: The Tomb of Robart Colles and Cecili, his wif (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xvi: The Tomb of St. Edward the Confessor, King of England (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xvii: The North Front of the Gate at Whitehall (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xviii: The North Front of King's Street Gate (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xix: Plans of the two proceeding Gates, in one Plate (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xx: Coins of Henry VIII, Elizabeth and James I, Kings of England: Likewise, and image of Elizabeth Expressed in encaustic work (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xxi: Excerpt from Edward Hall's Chronicle of Henry VIII (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xxii, xxiii, xxiv, xxv and xxvi: The Tournament of Henry VIII, February 12, 1510: Ingraved from an ancient roll in the Heralds Office, London in six plates. A-S (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xxvii: The present day appearance of Furness Abbey in the county of Lancashire (scholarly commentary)
- Plates xxviii, xxix, xxx, xxxi, xxxii and xxxiii: Letters from the English Barons to Boniface VIII (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xxxiv: Head gilded from bronze, of ancient work, excavated at Aquae Sulis (Bath) (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xxxv: Distant view of Colchester Castle, Essex
- Plate xxxvi: Ground plan, south and east prospects of Colchester Castle
- Plate xxxvii: A table of English silver coins
- Plate xxxviii: A table of English gold coins
- Plate xxxix: Tutbury Castle, Staffordshire (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xl: Melbourne Castle, Derbyshire (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xli: Lancaster Castle, Lancashire (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xlii: Pontefract Castle, Yorkshire (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xliii: Coins struck in France and Flanders relating to the History of England
- Plate xliv: Knaresborough Castle, Yorkshire
- Plate xlv: Image of the greatly revered Thomas Tanner, Bishop of St. Asaph's and not long ago a most worthy associate of this society
- Plate xlvi: Tickhill an old castle
- Plate xlvii: A plan of the Roman roads in Yorkshire (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xlviii: Coins struck in France and Flanders relating to the History of England (scholarly commentary)
- Plate xlix: Ancient chapel adjoining to the Bishops palace at Hereford
- Plates L, LI and LII : Roman mosaic peacock (scholarly commentary)
- Plate liii: Antient seals
- Plate liv: Antient seals
- Plate lv: Fronts and backs of medals and gold coins
- Plate lvi: Gold and silver coins annotated with weights and values
- Plate LVII: Hypocaustum Romanun Lincolniae (scholarly commentary)
- Plate lviii: Antient seals
- Plate lix: Antient seals
- Plate lx: Antient seals
- Plate lxi: Winchester Cross
- Plate lxii: Decree imposed against the papal jurisdiction in England in the year 1534
- Plate lxiii: True and exact draft of the Tower Liberties
- Plate lxiv: Chichester cross
- Plate lxv: Astianax vicit Kalendio
- Plate lxvi: Portrait of Robert Cotton
- Plate lxvii: "Bibliothecae Cognominiis conditoris, Effigies, Ad archetypum opera depictum accurate expressa "
- Plate lxviii: Codice Geneseos Cottoniano Dissertatio Historica (excerpt)
- Plate lxix: Codice Geneseos Cottoniano Dissertatio Historica (excerpt)
- Plate lxx: Fragmentorum codicis Cottoniani libri Geneseos Tabula I
- Plate lxx: Fragmentorum codicis Cottoniani libri Geneseos Tabula II
- Standard of weights and measures in the Exchequer
- "View of the Court of Wards and Liveries with the Officers, Servants and other Persons there Assembled"
- Brief account of the Court of Wards and Liveries [page 1]
- Brief account of the Court of Wards and Liveries [page 2]
- Brief account of the Court of Wards and Liveries [page 3]
Plates IX-XII: Fountains Abbey in the county of York, four diverse sides of the ruins. N.1-4
Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 3.0
- Plate ix: Monasterii FONTANENSIS in Skeldale ad tertium a Rippona in Agro Eboracensi Lapidem, rudera prout hodie ad Lybem conspiciuntur Canobium hoc celeberrimum olim ad Fratres XIII, qui a Monachis B. Mariae Ebor, vitae severioris exercondae gratia seceserant, recipiendos fundavit Thurstinus Archiepiscopus AD MCXXXII at tenuibus adeo facultatibus, ut primumnon nisi sub Ulmo frondosa Hospitium habuerint, magna cum rerum omnium, inopia luctantes. Eos statim D. Bernardus in Ordinem Cistercianum adscivit, cuius sub Norma opes amplissimas demum consequuit, fundos CDLXXIII. Libris annuatim estimatos HENRICO VIII Eversori suo dediderunt.
- Plate x: Ecclesiae FONTANENSIS Facies Orientalis. Sumptibus Societatis Antiquariae
- Plate xi: Cenobii FONTANENSIS ab Occidente Prospectus
- Plate xii: Cenobii FONTANENSIS a Monte vulgo Wakeman Tower as Austrum Prospectus
- Plate ix: The old stones of Fountains Abbey in Skeldale, three miles from Ripon in the county of Yorkshire, just as they appear today at [Lybem ]. This Monastery was once most famous for the 13 Brothers, who had separated from the monks of the Abbey of St Mary, York in order to cultivate a more austere life. Thurstan, Archbishop founded [the Abbey] to receive them in 1132. But, with such meager resources, they could first only lodge themselves under a leafy elm tree. [They were] entirely without resources, but still anointed. St Bernard immediately adopted them into the Cistercian order, under whose Rule they gained ample resources, [namely] 423 farms. They had given that estimate[d figure] in rents annually to Henry VIII, the Suppressor [of the Monasteries] himself.
- Plate x: East Side of Fountains Abbey Church
- Plate xi: Western view of Fountains Abbey
- Plate xii: Southwestern view of Fountains Abbey from the hill commonly known as Wakeman Tower
Plates:Engravings by George Vertue (1723) after four drawings by Samuel Buck (1722), as recorded in the SAL Minutes for 1722-23. Unlike most of the others, these plates are neither signed nor dated in the copper. With his brother Nathaniel, Buck was at this time embarking on his own publication series A Collection of Engravings of Castles, and Abbeys in England (1726-1739). It seems likely that his growing reputation as an antiquarian illustrator in York caught the attention of Roger Gale, who commissioned the drawings and proposed the project to the Society.
Object:Ruins of the former twelfth-century abbey church of Fountains, Yorkshire, with extant monastic structures.
Provenance and Location:Built in the twelfth century and partially dismantled under Henry VIII in the sixteenth century, Fountains Abbey is one of the great Cistercian Houses of the British Isles. Dissolved under Henry VIII, the Abbey has been subject to campaigns of despoliation, and is now largely ruinous. The images are thus significant visual evidence of the site as it stood in 1722, recording subsequently lost fabric, including the late twelfth-century cloister arcades, the tracery of the main windows of the abbey, the presbytery arcades and high altar enclosure.
Commentary [MR]In modern historiography, Fountains Abbey is the most intensively studied Cistercian house in Europe. It was the second Cistercian outpost founded in the North of England, and came to become the largest and richest Cistercian house in the country. According to Serlo of Kirkstall (fl. 1205), Fountains was founded by Benedictine monks from St Mary’s abbey, York, who sought a simpler and less worldly life. In December 1132, Archbishop Thurstan of York brought a group of 13 monks from York to the valley of the River Skell (4 miles west of Ripon) to the wood of Herleshowe, where he gave them lands to found a monastery. In 1133 Fountains was admitted into the Cistercian order by St Bernard of Clairvaux as part of his colonizing of the North of England and Scotland. The first wooden church on site was replaced by a stone church before 1147 when a fire is recorded. The subsequent campaign between c. 1150-1250 saw the erection of much of the present structure, including most of its outbuildings.
The end of Fountains as a working monastery came with the general suppression of English monasteries in November 1539. Unlike some other monastic sites, the abbey buildings at Fountains were not immediately dismantled at the Dissolution, because Henry VIII intended to create a new bishopric with jurisdiction over Richmondshire and parts of Lancashire. This temporarily saved the buildings from ruin and accounts in part for why so much remained to be recorded in 1722. By October 1540, however, the sale of the abbey was completed and the buildings began to be dismantled and its stained glass and lead dispersed, leaving the building without roofing or complete walls. Because its new owner—Sir Richard Gresham—did not rebuild Fountains or transform it into a residence, it was saved from further ruin through domestication. To the north side of the abbey precinct, a new residence—Fountains Hall—was begun in the early seventeenth century based upon the designs of Robert Smythson, using some stone from the abbey ruins, but it is notably not represented in any of the engravings.
The seventeenth- and eighteenth-century reception of Fountains was focused as much on the architecture of the monastery as on its topographical setting. By 1682, the ruins of Fountains received poetic testimony: the historian Robert Thoresby visited in that year and described the site as "a noble wreck in ruinous perfection." In the early eighteenth century, Fountains became enveloped into the Studley estate and its gardens (identified on plate xii). The first phase (1716 -1730) involved diverting the river into a canal at the centre of the Skell valley and adding geometric fishponds. Garden buildings were built after 1732 and the entire garden was complete by 1742. The abbey ruins remained at the west end of the garden as a vista, a relationship shown in a painting by Balthazar Nebot of 1768 (now in the National Trust).
Inheriting the Studley Royal estate on his father’s death in 1742, William Aislabie continued the landscaping of the lower Skell valley and bought the Fountains estate in 1768 for the immense sum of £16,000. He sought to redesign the gardens in keeping with contemporary picturesque taste of Capability Brown. Fountains was no longer conceived as a ruin at the end of a vista but was brought into the garden itself, as part of an informal arrangement of lawns framed by trees.
The Society of Antiquaries Minutes for 1721-22 record details of the images’ conception. On 7 June 1721, Roger Gale displayed drawings of Fountains by Dr Johnston of York at the Society’s meetings. It may be that these images were not approved by the Society, because on 7 Feb 1722 “Mr Roger Gale brought four drawings of Fountains Abby Yorkshire drawn by Mr [Samuel and or Nathaniel] Buck which were ordered to be Engraven and Mr Vertue was desir’d to take care thereof.” These drawings became the Vetusta Monumenta plates. Forming a visual survey of the property from its four cardinal points, the drawings were conceived in the tradition of the Bucks’ contemporary views, which frequently took advantage of surrounding promontories to offer both bird’s eye views and perpendicular elevations. Also typical of the Bucks’ contemporary work, the emphasis is on the location of the buildings within their natural surroundings and atmospheric conditions. The format of the Bucks’ four-image survey of Fountains was not repeated in Vetusta Monumenta, thus underscoring the experimental nature of the first volume. By 22 May 1723 George Vertue had to hand proofs of the images. Conceived in 1722, the four views thus record the abbey in the midst of the first campaign, as evidenced by some of the youthful foliage described as "Young Ash Trees" in pl. xi. As elsewhere in Vetusta Monumenta, the attention of members of the Society was drawn to ancient monuments by contemporary works of restoration or destruction, and we may surmise that the contemporary gardening works were an impetus to record the buildings as they stand, and an impetus to omit later structures like Fountains Hall. Here we may detect an early ethical commentary on modern “restorations” of the sort that would characterize the Society’s endeavors in the later eighteenth century.
Works CitedChristopher Norton and David Park (eds). 1986. Cistercian Art and Architecture in the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.Draper, Peter. 1977. “The Nine Altars at Durham and Fountains” In British Archaeological Association Conference Transactions: Medieval Art and Architecture at Durham Cathedral. 74-86. Durham.
Coppack, Glyn. 2004. Fountains Abbey: The Cistercians in Northern England. Stroud.Fergusson, Peter. 1984. Architecture of Solitude: Cistercian Abbeys in Twelfth-Century England. Princeton: Princeton UP.
Society of Antiquaries of London. 1718-. Minutes of the Society’s Proceedings.