USM Open Source History Text: The World at War: World History 1914-1945Main MenuIntroduction: A Mural as WindowOn Diego Rivera's Detroit IndustryThe World Around 1914, Part I: the Journey of Young GandhiThe World Around 1914, Part II: The Era of Nationalism and Imperialism (1848-1914)The First World WarThe Long Russian Revolution (1917 – 1929)The Decline of the West? Europe from 1919 – 1929A New Middle East: The Rise of the Middle East State SystemChina Between Qing Collapse and WWIILatin America Between Boom and Bust (1911-1929)Africa Under Colonial Rule: Politics and Race from 1914‐1939The United States from The First World War to the Great DepressionThe Great DepressionThree Varieties of Radicalism in the 1930s: Nazi Germany, Stalinist Russia, and Imperial JapanThree Responses to Modernity: Ho Chi Minh, Ibn Saud, and Getulio VargasThe Second World WarSeth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929c
View of a Factory Workshop for the Production of Artillery Shells (November 13, 1940)
12017-09-20T03:22:53-07:00Seth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929c192371"In 1933 the German armaments industry had already been given priority over other sectors of the economy under the general plan to "restore Germany’s capacity for self-defense." The transition to total war production did not take place until 1943, however. Up to that point, Nazi economic and armaments planning was characterized by a lack of coordination and by turf battles between rival authorities – a situation that prevented the full exploitation of the country's productive potential. Moreover, Hitler had initally opposed the full move to a complete war economy. The normal everyday life and morale of the German civilian population was not to be affected. Instead, the Nazi war plan had to adapt to the economic situation. Blitzkrieg offensives spared scarce German resources. Conquered areas and peoples were brought into the new German greater economic area [Großwirtschaftsraum]. Above all, this meant that their raw materials, foodstuffs, and machines were systematically plundered and that their labor force was exploited." http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_image.cfm?image_id=2013plain2017-09-20T03:22:53-07:00Seth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929c
The German Blitzkrieg was designed to be a highly dynamic fast-strike capacity that utilized primarily tank divisions, mobile infantry units, and air power. The strategy was developed to avoid two main problems facing Germany. The first is that it wanted to prevent the type of two-front war it faced during WWI. The idea here was that the fast strikes could knock states out of the war in a matter of weeks or months before defending armies could retrench and blunt the German attack. The second problem the strategy was meant to solve was the resource issue. Germany knew that it could not face the combined productive capacity of the Western powers (especially if the United States were included) and therefore it had to achieve fast and decisive victories. This was especially important because the Nazis had been mobilizing and preparing for over half a decade by 1939 while the allied nations had just begun to take hesitant steps to reach a state of war-readiness. Traditional advancement of infantry battalions like during WWI would result in greater German casualties, be more complex from a logistical point of view, and would take much longer to execute. Blitzkrieg maximized the Nazis’ key advantages in 1939.
The results of the Blitzkrieg were shocking. Before September was over, Polish resistance had collapsed in the face of the German assault. After projecting force to the north to protect the vital resource links between Scandinavia and Germany, Hitler prepared for the invasion of Western Europe. In May of 1940, the German army struck. The Netherlands fell in five days. Belgium was quickly overrun. French resistance was shattered. On June 22, less than two months after the campaign began, France surrendered to Hitler. From September 1939 to June 1940, Nazi Germany had taken control over nearly all of Europe.
The only remaining European belligerent was Great Britain. Germany quickly drew up plans for an invasion of the island, the so-called “Operation Sea-Lion.” The first step in the operation was the knocking out of British air power through a sustained bombardment of British military facilities in England. Once air supremacy was established, the Germans could then transport their armored mobile divisions across the English Channel to complete the conquest. Famously, the Nazi air force (Luftwaffe) proved unable to defeat the British Royal Air Force (RAF). British technological superiority and radar capacity gave its fighters a distinct advantage. In addition, Hitler’s decision to bomb British cities in order to break the will of the British population diverted precious capacity away from the battle and allowed the British time to decisively increase their advantage, eventually overcoming the Germans’ quantitative superiority. By the following year, Hitler and his generals had no choice but to put plans for the invasion on ice.