USM Open Source History Text: The World at War: World History 1914-1945Main MenuIntroduction: A Mural as WindowOn Diego Rivera's Detroit IndustryThe World Around 1914, Part I: the Journey of Young GandhiThe World Around 1914, Part II: The Era of Nationalism and Imperialism (1848-1914)The First World WarThe Long Russian Revolution (1917 – 1929)The Decline of the West? Europe from 1919 – 1929A New Middle East: The Rise of the Middle East State SystemChina Between Qing Collapse and WWIILatin America Between Boom and Bust (1911-1929)Africa Under Colonial Rule: Politics and Race from 1914‐1939The United States from The First World War to the Great DepressionThe Great DepressionThree Varieties of Radicalism in the 1930s: Nazi Germany, Stalinist Russia, and Imperial JapanThree Responses to Modernity: Ho Chi Minh, Ibn Saud, and Getulio VargasThe Second World WarSeth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929c
The Odd State of Trans-Jordan
12017-06-23T21:59:36-07:00Seth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929c192374plain2020-11-12T07:50:36-08:00Seth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929cThe creation of Transjordan, today’s Jordan, seems now like an accident of history. Following the suppression of the Arab Revolt under the leadership of Faysal and the British T.E. Lawrence (of Arabia), another Hashemite leader and brother of Faysal, Amir ‘Abdullah, marched north from Mecca to fight the French in Syria. The prospect of another war in the region prompted the British to intervene. The British called a conference in Cairo, and in 1921 decided to split the mandate territory of Palestine into two parts. The eastern part of the area, to the east of the Jordan River, would be called Trans-Jordan and would be given to Amir ‘Abdullah in return for his cessation of military action. The small caravan stop at which his forces had come to a halt, Amman, would become his capital. Though Trans-Jordan would remain under British control until after WWII, the foundation was set for independence under Hashemite leadership. Amazingly, Hashemite kings have ruled the tiny, poor nation from its inception in 1946 until today—with massive Western backing. In terms of its founding as an independent territory separate from the rest of the Palestinian mandate zone, it is significant that the British closed Trans-Jordan to Jewish immigration, a movement that was dramatically increasing in the 1920s and 1930s as instability and violence against Jews spread in Europe.