USM Open Source History Text: The World at War: World History 1914-1945Main MenuIntroduction: A Mural as WindowOn Diego Rivera's Detroit IndustryThe World Around 1914, Part I: the Journey of Young GandhiThe World Around 1914, Part II: The Era of Nationalism and Imperialism (1848-1914)The First World WarThe Long Russian Revolution (1917 – 1929)The Decline of the West? Europe from 1919 – 1929A New Middle East: The Rise of the Middle East State SystemChina Between Qing Collapse and WWIILatin America Between Boom and Bust (1911-1929)Africa Under Colonial Rule: Politics and Race from 1914‐1939The United States from The First World War to the Great DepressionThe Great DepressionThree Varieties of Radicalism in the 1930s: Nazi Germany, Stalinist Russia, and Imperial JapanThree Responses to Modernity: Ho Chi Minh, Ibn Saud, and Getulio VargasThe Second World WarSeth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929c
The Creation of National Minorities
12017-06-09T11:00:04-07:00Seth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929c192375plain2020-08-23T06:35:34-07:00Seth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929cEducational systems, military culture, and countless other variables, like professional and civic organizations, created a nationalism that had two main consequences. The first was to create a common identity and then to tie people with this similar identity together into a national "people." All those people who had been subjects of one German prince or another became Germans. All people who had identified with one Italian state like Naples, Sicily, Tuscany, or the Piedmont, became Italians. The second consequence was that for all the diversity that the category of a "nation" could accommodate, inevitably people were left out, some by choice, some by active exclusion. The increased presence of the national government in the daily lives of the people through school, state bureaucracy, and military service stoked the fires of minority groups within larger states for independence. As Austrian German schooling spread, for example, so too did Czech nationalism. As English nationalism spread, so too did Irish nationalism and the Irish independence movement. As Austria attempted to control its newly acquired parts of the Balkans, so did Croatian and Serbian nationalism grew. As German nationalism grew, so too did the German’s animosity towards Slavs, Jews, and the French. As nationalism in the United States grew, so too did discrimination against immigrant groups like Jews, Italians, Chinese, Russians, and to the historical minority groups, African Americans and Native Americans. Nationalism, which had started as a political expression mainly with liberal aspirations, had by 1900 been co-opted by those with conservative political agendas, namely the political, economic, and cultural elite. Nationalist political parties started to emerge in every European countries. Most often, they were conservative, militarily aggressive, xenophobic, racist, and anti-Semitic. Minorities within nations felt the burdens of this rising nationalism. Colonial peoples, administered from abroad, felt it even more acutely. This was especially in the case in South Africa, which refused to recognize the equality of its African and Indian residents. However integrated people of colonial descent were into the structures of the ruling nations, they could not be truly included. An Indian, in this era of nationalism, could not become an Englishman. An Indonesian could never become Dutch. The creation of nations created national minorities.
12020-08-23T06:34:28-07:00Henry de Groux, Zola Faces the Mob (1898)1This depiction of the French writer Emile Zola facing a mob angry with his defense of the Jewish captain Alfred Dreyfus, who was falsely accuses of treason and found guilty. Zola led the attack against these false accusations. The Dreyfus Affair pitted conservative, anti-Semitic French nationalists against republicans and socialists in a case that divided the nation. Legality was not the only thing at stake, the notion of who belonged in the French nation was hotly contested in the public sphere.plain2020-08-23T06:34:30-07:00