USM Open Source History Text: The World at War: World History 1914-1945Main MenuIntroduction: A Mural as WindowOn Diego Rivera's Detroit IndustryThe World Around 1914, Part I: the Journey of Young GandhiThe World Around 1914, Part II: The Era of Nationalism and Imperialism (1848-1914)The First World WarThe Long Russian Revolution (1917 – 1929)The Decline of the West? Europe from 1919 – 1929A New Middle East: The Rise of the Middle East State SystemChina Between Qing Collapse and WWIILatin America Between Boom and Bust (1911-1929)Africa Under Colonial Rule: Politics and Race from 1914‐1939The United States from The First World War to the Great DepressionThree Varieties of Radicalism in the 1930s: Nazi Germany, Stalinist Russia, and Imperial JapanThree Responses to Modernity: Ho Chi Minh, Ibn Saud and Getulio VargasThe Second World WarSeth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929c
Rivera Returns to Mexico
12017-12-15T00:47:20-08:00Seth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929c192375plain2017-12-22T01:56:06-08:00Seth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929cWhen Rivera returned to Mexico in 1921, he encountered a revolutionary society that was just emerging from a decade of civil war. The war had been incredibly bloody and chaotic, notable for the breakdown of any form of centralized power and the rise of localized militias led by charismatic figures like Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapato. By 1920, however, Zapato had been assassinated by the new constitutional regime and Villa had surrendered. The situation in Mexico mirrored in many ways the revolutionary dynamics in Russia, which witnessed a shorter period of chaotic civil war, followed by an attempt, like in Mexico, for a stabilization of the revolutionary government in the 1920s and 1930s. Like in Russia, the stabilization period was marked by struggles for power among political leaders, violence, and a mishmash of social and cultural reforms. Like in Russia, the Mexican revolutionary government in the 1920s learned that despite its desire for broad social reforms, it would be incredibly challenging to remove itself from the global economy. Finally, like in Russia the Mexican government sought to create “an aesthetics” of the revolution. Diego Rivera, bringing together threads of hyper-modernity with traditional motifs, Marxism with peasant communitarianism, would be the most famous example of the revolutionary artist. By the late 1920s, however, Rivera had fallen out of favor with movements on the right and the left in Mexico. As the government moved away from revolutionary Marxism, it viewed Rivera as too radical. At the same time, the fissures in the world communist movement, primarily between Stalinists and the diverse array of opponents to Stalin, eventually led to Rivera’s expulsion of the communist party in 1929 on the grounds that he was a “Trotskyite.”
For more on Rivera's return to Mexico and the genesis of his paintings of Mexican history, select here to see an interesting short essay by Max Kozloff.
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12017-06-08T06:02:19-07:00Seth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929cIntroduction: A Mural as WindowSeth Rogoff12On Diego Rivera's Detroit Industrysplash4629312017-12-15T01:02:07-08:00Seth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929c