USM Open Source History Text: The World at War: World History 1914-1945Main MenuIntroduction: A Mural as WindowOn Diego Rivera's Detroit IndustryThe World Around 1914, Part I: the Journey of Young GandhiThe World Around 1914, Part II: The Era of Nationalism and Imperialism (1848-1914)The First World WarThe Long Russian Revolution (1917 – 1929)The Decline of the West? Europe from 1919 – 1929A New Middle East: The Rise of the Middle East State SystemChina Between Qing Collapse and WWIILatin America Between Boom and Bust (1911-1929)Africa Under Colonial Rule: Politics and Race from 1914‐1939The United States from The First World War to the Great DepressionThe Great DepressionThree Varieties of Radicalism in the 1930s: Nazi Germany, Stalinist Russia, and Imperial JapanThree Responses to Modernity: Ho Chi Minh, Ibn Saud, and Getulio VargasThe Second World WarSeth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929c
National Public Education
12017-06-09T10:57:45-07:00Seth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929c192379plain2020-08-23T03:32:28-07:00Seth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929cToday, we take for granted the existence of broad-based national education. This was, however, radically new in the late 19th century. Just about everywhere in Europe and the United States the percentage of children who attended state-funded school shot up precipitously after 1848. The rise was particularly dramatic in Germany, France, and England. England, which had no public educational system before 1870, saw enrollment increase dramatically during the years before the First World War. Sweden, Norway, and Holland tripled the size of their primary schools during the years from 1875 to 1914. The main thrust of these national public educational systems was twofold. First, nations wanted to ensure that new citizens could read, speak, and write in the national language. This meant that these students could be future participants in the increasingly complex national workplace or economy. Second, the schools were important places (as they are today) for creating a sense of civic responsibility, shared history, and a common identification with one’s nationality as central to identity. Schools were so important to the advance of nationalism that the historian Eric Hobsbawm writes, “Until the triumph of television, there was no medium of secular propaganda to compare with the classroom. Hence, in educational terms, the era from 1870-1914 was above all, in most European countries, the age of the primary school.” The connection between national education systems and a new sense of nationalism is nowhere clearer than in the United States, which in the late 1880s introduced the first form of secular worship into society: the daily pledge of allegiance to the greatest of all national icons, the flag (the first articulation (1892) of the pledge in conjunction with the commemoration of Columbus's voyages is presented here). It should also be noted that schools were a solution to a vexing problem created by the transition from agricultural to industrial labor: what to do with the children of working-class parents when they were no longer needed on the family farm? One solution to this was the brutal system of child labor. By around 1900, however, social reformers had campaigned against the violent, dangerous, and exploitative nature of child labor. Increasingly, state-mandated schooling would take children out of the factories, mines, and sweatshops and off the streets of the swelling cities.
12017-08-14T23:01:04-07:00Performing Calisthenics at a Gymnastics Festival (June 6-9, 1911)1"This photograph by the Haeckel brothers shows athletes performing calisthenics at a gymnastics festival in Gotha (Thuringia) in which teams from various universities took part. In Germany, clubs and societies came together around various interests, including gymnastics. Public sports and gymnastics festivals, such as the one shown here, created a sense of community and solidarity among participants. They brought Germans from various regions together, strengthening the country’s vibrant associational culture. Photo: Gebrüder Haeckel."plain2017-08-14T23:01:04-07:00