USM Open Source History Text: The World at War: World History 1914-1945Main MenuIntroduction: A Mural as WindowOn Diego Rivera's Detroit IndustryThe World Around 1914, Part I: the Journey of Young GandhiThe World Around 1914, Part II: The Era of Nationalism and Imperialism (1848-1914)The First World WarThe Long Russian Revolution (1917 – 1929)The Decline of the West? Europe from 1919 – 1929A New Middle East: The Rise of the Middle East State SystemChina Between Qing Collapse and WWIILatin America Between Boom and Bust (1911-1929)Africa Under Colonial Rule: Politics and Race from 1914‐1939The United States from The First World War to the Great DepressionThe Great DepressionThree Varieties of Radicalism in the 1930s: Nazi Germany, Stalinist Russia, and Imperial JapanThree Responses to Modernity: Ho Chi Minh, Ibn Saud, and Getulio VargasThe Second World WarSeth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929c
Messali Hadj, founder of African North Star, in Algeria
Like the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood, which combined social reforms (it was anti-elitist), nationalist sentiment (it was anti‐western intervention) and Islam as a means of protest (Islamism), the anti‐colonial movement in Algeria was a complex weave of ideologies. Unlike the situation in Egypt and more like the situation in Kenya and South Africa, Algerians faced a growing population of European, this time French, settlers. Gradually over the course of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the European settlers, the so‐called pieds noirs, came to dominate Algerian politics and society.
Immigration and natural increase were driving up the Algerian population. Arable land was becoming scarce and was increasingly in the hands of European settlers. Tensions in the Algerian countryside were on the rise. Tensions also existed among Algerians who had migrated to France to work as cheap labor. In 1926, the Algerian anti‐colonial movement arose among poorly paid Algerian laborers in France. The movement, the African North Star, combined anti-capitalist Marxism with notions of Algerian and Muslim identity. The movement grew during the 1930s, despite French suppression, and tensions between anti-colonialists and the French came to a head in the Setif Rising of May 1945. Violence confrontations between Setif Muslims and the colonial police escalated with Setif attacks on European settlers, about 100 were killed. The Algerian colonial government responded with a massive military operation (and this following the conclusion of WWII) in which an estimated six thousand Algerians were killed, an event known as the Setif Massacre. Moderate opposition to French rule lost popular appeal in post‐massacre Algeria. Radicalism came to dominate Algerian political thinking, and militaristic opposition became the primary anti-colonial tactic as in Kenya in the 1950s with the Mau Mau Uprising. Colonial violence was now turning back on itself.