USM Open Source History Text: The World at War: World History 1914-1945Main MenuIntroduction: A Mural as WindowOn Diego Rivera's Detroit IndustryThe World Around 1914, Part I: the Journey of Young GandhiThe World Around 1914, Part II: The Era of Nationalism and Imperialism (1848-1914)The First World WarThe Long Russian Revolution (1917 – 1929)The Decline of the West? Europe from 1919 – 1929A New Middle East: The Rise of the Middle East State SystemChina Between Qing Collapse and WWIILatin America Between Boom and Bust (1911-1929)Africa Under Colonial Rule: Politics and Race from 1914‐1939The United States from The First World War to the Great DepressionThe Great DepressionThree Varieties of Radicalism in the 1930s: Nazi Germany, Stalinist Russia, and Imperial JapanThree Responses to Modernity: Ho Chi Minh, Ibn Saud, and Getulio VargasThe Second World WarSeth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929c
Conclusion to A New Middle East
12017-06-23T22:06:06-07:00Seth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929c192372plain2020-11-12T08:44:00-08:00Seth Rogoff5f001fc099cd635507b143be056702764af6929cWe will come back to the situation on the Arabian Peninsula later in the semester when we look at “three reactions to modernity.” In the meantime, let’s sum up the situation in the Middle East between the world wars in a few quick sentences. Like in Europe, the victorious powers, foremost England and France, carved up the former imperial territories of the Ottoman Empire in order to maximize their strategic interests. Because these interests were often at odds with local traditions and constellations of power, the balance of the entire region was upset. The formation of Iraq, for example, or the artificial divisions of Syria and Lebanon, or the creation of out thin air of Trans-Jordan, created a false sense of stability, propped up by imperial military and economic power. Popular uprising against these colonial arrangements was constant, only to be quelled with overpowering violence or aggressive domestic political agendas. In the end, all of these countries sought a way out of their subservient status—adopting various ways to create a counter-force to imperial rule. Some countries (like Iran, Turkey, and Egypt) strove to increase sentiments of nationalism. Other countries, like Syria or Saudi Arabia, looked to Pan-Arabism or Islamic fundamentalism. Many nations, like Iraq and Lebanon, experienced wave after wave of violence. Throughout all this, Western interests, European and American, maneuvered to increase their exploitation of Middle Eastern oil and trade.