Sailing the British Empire : The Voyages of The Clarence, 1858-73Main MenuSailing the British Empire: The Voyages of the Clarence, 1858-73IntroductionThe Crew / AcknowledgmentsThe Provenance of Watson's LogAdditional Sources: Logs, Crew Lists, DiariesInside Lloyd's Register"Green's Celebrated Service"Details on owner of the ship at the time of our voyage, Richard Green.The Master Builder: William PileThe Master: Joseph Watson's BiographyA Mate's ProgressThe Career of Henry Berridge, First Mate of the ClarenceThe Crew of the Clarence in 1864An annotated crew listThe 18th HussarsThe Clarence and the Cyclone of 1864Origins of Indian Emigrants Aboard The ClarenceThe Surgeon-SuperintendantWages of indentured labourers in Demerara (1870-1900)The Clarence Sails to AustraliaMutiny! Violence and Resistance Aboard "Coolie Ships"Cholera: The Killer from CalcuttaSTSC 077, Fall 2015 First Year Seminar, University of Pennsylvaniab33a025deaa7595ed0079bfc9b77ea3cb14b8d08STSC 077, The University of Pennsylvania, fall 2015
surgeon supplies 2
12015-11-25T18:37:05-08:00Alden Terryeda541eb6a8a53055892f3a0c4ae86df6a0c654b62652Medicine Chest. Digital image. Museum of Victoria. Museum of Victoria, n.d. Web. Nov.-Dec. 2015. .plain2015-12-07T10:45:35-08:00Alden Terryeda541eb6a8a53055892f3a0c4ae86df6a0c654b
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1media/smaller.png2015-12-02T02:06:39-08:00The Master Builder: William Pile80plain2015-12-08T22:49:29-08:00 The story of William Pile Junior, the masterful and renowned shipbuilder that built the Clarence, begins in 1823 when he was born, son of William Pile Senior, also a shipbuilder. William had two brothers, John and William. As soon as William left school...
Monkwearmouth on today's map. http://www.weather-forecast.com/place_maps/mo/Monkwearmouth.8.gif
Pile continued his apprenticeship with his father until he was about 20, when he was ready to move onto bigger and better things!
William Pile's Shipyard in North Sands, Sunderland. Courtesy of Sunderland Museum and Winter Gardens
In 1852, Pile crafted the sailing ship King Richard for John Hay of Sunderland. The creation of this incredible ship was a turning point in his career.
One of these later-requested ships, the Windsor Castle was built by Pile in 1857 for Green, and is pictured here. Nautical Photo Agency
Pile's ability to create first-class ships for a cheaper price earned him a lot of loyal customers (including His Imperial Majesty Napoleon III-See entry 6 under "Iron and Composite Ships"!) that demanded a multitude of ships; by 1865 Pile's yard employed 3,000 men.
A list of ships built by William Pile, copied from the notebook of Thomas Collie Stamp, first cashier to William Pile. Merchant and Sailing Ships
Or, if you're more into super-neat excel spreadsheets, we've got that too.
After the creation of numerous ships and garnering quite the reputation, Pile died in 1873.
Quite the sideburns! Tyne & Wear Archives & Museums
1. Bowen, F C. "Pile of Sunderland." Shipbuilding and Shipping Record 65 (1945): 69. Print 2. MacGregor, David R. Merchant Sailing Ships 1850-1875: Heyday of Sail. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1984. Print.
Other Sources Utilized
Clarke, J F. Building Ships on the North East Coast: A Labour of Love, Risk, and Pain. Vol 2. Whitley Bay: Bewick Press, 1997. Print.
The duties of the ship surgeon ranged from inspecting the emigrants before boarding (he had to sign a certificate attesting to their good health), to ensuring that there was efficient air circulation throughout the ship. The Instructions to Surgeons Superintendents of Government Emigration Ships (1866) lay out the extensive rules for how a surgeon should appropriately act and what came with the job. Another popular book of guidelines was Handbook for Surgeons Superintendent in the Coolie Emigration Service (1889), by James M. Laing, a skilled and retired surgeon superintendent. Whether certain individuals actually followed these guidelines remains very unclear. According to these instructions, not only was the surgeon responsible for maintaining the health of those on board, but also for disciplining them when he saw fit.; this may be where the issues of too much power originated from. The surgeon would also inspect the “Cooking Apparatus” and also carry around a “Water Con-Distilling Apparatus” so that he was able to convert saltwater into something more “fresh.” Surgeons were required to keep a detailed journal and record of the voyage and patients as well as visit the decks at least two to three times a day to ensure cleanliness and preserve dryness (no laundry, washing, or anything that required water was allowed on the decks). In 1857 their pay was increased to 10s per every person who arrived alive (an increase from their previous 8s). On every subsequent voyage, this amount per “head” would increase 1s up to 12s. Increasing the surgeon’s pay was a good way to attract more competent individuals for the job.
Note: While these images are from Australian surgeons, it is expected that the surgeons aboard The Clarence and other ships would use similar materials.