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How Convenient are our Conveniences? The demise of the underground facilities in Dunedin 1910-1980s.

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Bibliography

Secondary Sources


AM, ‘Spend a Penny, Spare a Thought’. Melbourne History Workshop (blog), 1 August 2016.

Auckland City Council, ‘Caught Short: A Brief History of Auckland’s Heritage Toilets’. Auckland, 2015.

Barry, Aoife, ‘Hidden Ireland: Supplying “a Long-Felt Want” - Dublin’s Public Toilets’The Journal.ie, accessed 4 June 2018.

Brickell, Chris, ‘“Waiting for Uncle Ben”: Age-Structured Homosexuality in New Zealand, 1920–1950’. 29. Journal of the History of Sexuality, Vol. 21, No. 3 (September 2012), pp. 467-495.

Cavanagh, Sue, and Vron Ware, ‘Less Convenient for Women’. Built Environment; London 16, Number 4 (1 January 1990), pp 279–287.

Collingwood, Neil, Secret Leek. Amberley Publishing Limited, 2016.

Cooley, Danika, ‘One Small Flush for Mankind’. Faces; Peterborough, 2011.

Cooper, Annabel, Robin Law, Jane Malthus, and Pamela Wood, ‘Rooms of Their Own: Public Toilets and Gendered Citizens in a New Zealand City, 1860‐1940’Gender, Place & Culture 7, Number 4 (1 December 2000), pp 417–33.

Daley, Caroline. ‘Flushed with Pride? Women’s Quest for Public Toilets in New Zealand’. Women’s Studies Journal, Auckland, (2000), volume 16, pp 95-113.

De Vos, Els. ‘Ladies and Gents: Public Toilets and Gender’. Technology and Culture; Baltimore, 52, no. 1 (January 2011), pp 220–21.

Denley, James, ‘A History of Twyfords 1680 - 1982’. published for Twyford Group, 1982. 

Flanagan, Maureen. ‘Private Needs, Public Space: Public Toilets Provision in the Anglo-Atlantic Patriarchal City: London, Dublin, Toronto and Chicago’. Urban History, 41, Number 02 (May 2014), pp 265–90.

Gershenson, Olga, Barbara Penner, and Rebecca Housel, ‘Ladies and Gents: Public Toilets and Gender’. Journal of Popular Culture 43, Number 1 (2010), pp 206–7.

Gough, Deborah. ‘Council Flushes out Underground Toilets’. The Age, Melbourne, Victoria, 26 June 2013.

Isaacs, N., 'Public Conveniences'. BUILD, 98, (February – March 2007), pp 94-95.

Isaacs, N., 'Toilets come full circle'. BUILD, 97, (December-January 2006), pp 86-87.

Jordan, Kate, ‘Women’s Rest Rooms James Lane, New Plymouth - Conservation Report’. 2017.

McCabe, Sarah, ‘The Provision of Underground Public Conveniences in London with Reference to Gender Differentials, 1850s-1980s’. Masters Thesis, University of London, 2012.

Molotch, Harvey Luskin, and Laura Noren, Toilet: Public Restrooms and the Politics of Sharing. New York University Press, 2010. 

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O’Bryan, Katherine Merzbacher, ‘Gender, Politics, and Power: The Development of the Ladies Rest Room and Lounge in Rural America, 1900-1945’. Ph.D., Middle Tennessee State University, 2013.

Penner, B, ‘A World of Unmentionable Suffering. Women’s Public Conveniences in Victorian London’. Journal of Design History, 14, Number 1 (2001), pp 35–52.

Pilkington, Dorothy, ‘Spending a Penny: Public Rest Rooms for Women in Palmerston North and Feilding’. Manawatū Journal of History, 5 (2009), pp 5-15.

Plaskow, Judith, ‘Embodiment, Elimination, and the Role of Toilets in Struggles for Social Justice’. Cross Currents, New York, Spring 2008.

‘Richard W Richards’. Sydney Aldermen (blog), City of Sydney website, Sydney City Council

Ross, Andrew I, ‘Review of Gershenson, Olga; Penner, Barbara, Eds., Ladies and Gents: Public Toilets and Gender’. H-Histsex, H-Review, November 2010.

Rupp, Rebecca, ‘Of Pots and Privies’. Early American Life, Camp Hill, August 2007.

Stanwell-Smith, R., ‘Public Toilets down the Drain? Why Privies Are a Public Health Concern’. Public Health 124, Number 11 (1 November 2010), pp 613–16.


Wood, Pamela J., Dirt: Filth and Decay in a New World Arcadia. Auckland, N.Z., Auckland University Press, 2005.


Primary Sources



Dunedin City Council Archives Series


Chief Sanitary Inspector’s Business Book, 1924-1935, acc1994/1

City Engineers Series Correspondence, DCC CE/2, 1914-1996

City Engineers Series, Plans of Public Conveniences, DCC CE 14/2/2

‘City Engineer Contract File 3/3, Contract 93 and 233 - Public Conveniences’, 1910, DCC CE 3/3

‘City Engineers Plan - Additions to Convenience, 1911, Plan 8925’, 23 May 1911, DCC CE 8925

City Health Inspector Inspectors Book 1958-1967, acc1994/1

City Health Department Correspondence, c1982-1989, acc1998/8

Dunedin City Council Annual Department Reports 1905-1980, DCC TC/27

Dunedin City Council Minute Books, Town Clerk Series 1, DCC TC/1

Dunedin Sanitary and Vehicle Inspector’s Business Book, 24 June 1909 – 2 March 1925, acc1994/1

Dunedin Town Board Letter Book, 1855-1865, DCC TC 30/1, 30/2

Public Works Committee Minutes, Dunedin City Council, Town Clerk Series 4, DCC TC/4

Town Clerk Newspaper Clipping Books, Town Clerk Series 41, DCC TC/41

Town Clerk Series 33 Correspondence, 1906-1980, DCC TC/33

Newspapers


Blackhouse, Matthew,  "Public Toilets Fail to Clean up When It Comes to Hygiene", NZ Herald,
16 June 2013, sec. New Zealand, https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10891009


"10,000 Visitors - Women’s Rest Centres Popular". Evening Star, 6 January 1938, Issue 22849,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19380106.2.107.

"A Deserving Cause." Otago Daily Times, 7 July 1906, Issue 13639,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19060707.2.46?end_date=31-12-1912&phrase=2&query=a+deserving+cause&start_date=01-01-1902&title=ODT.


‘Advertisements - Closing of Women’s Princes Street Rest Rooms and Conveniences’. Otago Daily Times, 29 August 1950, Issue 27480, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19500829.2.134.8


‘Brevities’. Evening Star, 16 December 1910, Issue 14440.

"City Council". Evening Star, 17 May 1900.


"City Council." Otago Daily Times, 26 April 1906, Issue 13577,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19060426.2.85?end_date=1906-12-31&items_per_page=100&phrase=2&query=city+council&sort_by=byDA&start_date=1906-04-01&title=ODT.


"City Council". Evening Star, 4 September 1913.


"City Council Reports". Evening Star, 29 October 1910, Issue 14509, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19101029.2.74.



"City Finances". Evening Star, 3 September 1909, Issue 14155, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19090903.2.7.



"City Needs". Evening Star, 11 December 1923, Issue 18504, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19231211.2.83.6.



"City Utilities". Evening Star, 8 October 1924, Issue 18759, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19241008.2.110.1.



"Current Topics." Otago Daily Times, 23 April 1906, Issue 13574, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19060423.2.28?end_date=31-12-1906&items_per_page=100&phrase=2&query=current+topics&sort_by=byDA&start_date=01-01-1906&title=ODT.


"Diary Column - Toilets". Evening Star, 20 February 1978.


"DIC Advertisement". Lake Wakatipu Mail, 16 February 1894, Issue 1981 edition, page 6, Column 2, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/LWM18940216.2.37.2.


"Dunedin Neglected". Otago Daily Times, 9 March 1905, Issue 13227,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19050309.2.16.


"Early Closing Hours". Evening Star, 2 October 1936, Issue 22459,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19361002.2.105.


"Editorial - Toilet Facilities". Otago Daily Times, 8 June 1984.


"Evening Post". Evening Post, 25 September 1926, Volume CXII, Issue 75, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/EP19260925.2.168.


"Evening Star". Evening Star, 12 September 1907, Issue 12765.


"Evening Star Column". Evening Star, 6 December 1910. https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19101206.2.21.


"Exhibition Workers Entertained by Directors - Ladies’ Committees at Afternoon Tea “More Rest Rooms
Needed in City”". Evening Star, 21 April 1926, Issue 19229, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19260421.2.18.10.


"Mayoral Installation". Evening Star, 2 May 1906. https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19060502.2.61.


"Municipal Reform - Provision of Underground Conveniences". Otago Daily Times, 27 August 1909,
Issue 14613, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19090827.2.7.


"New Exchange Area Toilets". Otago Daily Times, 12 March 1969.


"New Rest Rooms". Otago Daily Times, 8 May 1945, Issue 25838, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19450508.2.75.


"New Rest Rooms for Women in Athenaeum Building". Evening Star, 19 August 1947, Issue 26183,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19470819.2.72.


"Opening Hours". Otago Daily Times, 18 October 1974.


"Opening of Women’s Rest Rooms". Otago Daily Times, 29 August 1950, Issue 27480,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19500829.2.86.1.


"Otago Daily Times". Otago Daily Times, 2 February 1911, Issue 15057,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19110202.2.40.


"Our Municipal Undertakings". Evening Star, 18 April 1906, Issue 12790,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19060418.2.18.


"Appointment of Female
Attendant - Women's Rest Rooms" Advertisement, Otago Daily Times, 18 September
1928 Issue 20516, 
https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19280918.2.104.7


"Preserving a Monument". Evening Star, 15 April 1961.


"Proposal to Provide New City Conveniences". Evening Star, 1 April 1960.


"Public Convenience". Otago Daily Times, 30 December 1903, Issue 12858,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19031230.2.59.


"Public Conveniences". Evening Star, 30 May 1927, Issue 19569, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19270530.2.35.3.


"Public Conveniences". Otago Daily Times, 29 April 1939, Issue 23795, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19390429.2.135.5.


"Public Conveniences - Letter to the Editor". Evening Star, 7 April 1941, Issue 23854, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19410407.2.24.1.


"Public Health Mattters". Evening Star, 18 July 1907, Issue 12717, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19070718.2.35.

"Public Nuisances". Otago Daily Times, 14 March 1900.

"Ratepayers Foot Big Bill for Theft, Vandalism". Evening Star, 30 August 1955.


"Rest Room and Creche". Otago Daily Times, 17 June 1926, Issue 19818, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19260617.2.70.


"Rest Rooms". Otago Daily Times, 21 September 1948, Issue 26882, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19480921.2.48.


"Rest Rooms - New Premises in Octagon". Evening Star, 15 August 1950.


"Rest Rooms Again". Otago Daily Times, 7 February 1947, Issue 26380, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19470207.2.10.


"Sanitary Matters". Evening Star, 19 July 1906, Vol 12869.


"The Evening Star Friday, July 5, 1907", 5 July 1907, Issue 12706,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19070705.2.17?end_date=05-07-1907&items_per_page=100&phrase=2&query=voluminous+report&sort_by=byDA&start_date=05-07-1907&title=ESD.


"The Rest-Room". Evening Post, 23 May 1925, Volume CIX, Issue 119, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/EP19250523.2.32.


"THE WHITE ELEPHANT." Otago Daily Times, 4 August 1906, Issue 13663, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19060804.2.37


"Wanted, Public Conveniences for Both Sexes - To the Editor". Evening Star5 July 1906


"The Women’s Rest Room". Otago Daily Times, 14 September 1926, Issue 19894, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19260914.2.47.


"Toilets Survey". Otago Daily Times, 10 August 1977.



"Trial Closure". Otago Daily Times, 9 June 1976.


"Underground Conveniences, Cathedral Square, Christchurch". Progress, 1 October 1908, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/periodicals/P19081001.2.16.8.2.


"Vandalism Costs City 250 Pounds". Evening Star, 12 March 1962.


"Why Not for Women Too?" NZ Truth, 22 September 1906, Issue 6,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/NZTR19060922.2.38.4.


"Women Suffer Most from Lack of Central Toilets". Otago Daily Times, 28 January 1987.


"Women’s National Council - Rest Room for Mothers". Evening Star, 21 May 1926, Issue 19255,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19260521.2.112.


"Women’s Organisations Enthusiastic About New Rest Room Facilities". Evening Star, 20
August 1947, Issue 26184,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19470820.2.113.


"Women’s Rest Room". Evening Star, 20 July 1927, Issue 19613,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19270720.2.60.


"Women’s Rest Rooms". Evening Star, 16 April 1925, Issue 18917, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19250416.2.16.1.


"Women’s Rest Rooms". Otago Daily Times, 18 December 1945, Issue 26029, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ODT19451218.2.52.



"Women’s Rest Rooms - Housewives Views". Evening Star, 14 March 1947, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19470314.2.107.


"Women’s Rest Rooms - Letter to the Editor". Evening Star, 28 April 1941, Issue 23870,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19410428.2.78.4.


"Women’s Rest Rooms - Letter to the Editor". Evening Star, 3 May 1945, Issue 25474,  https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19450503.2.99.4.


"Women’s Rest Rooms - New Premises Sought - Not Possible Out of Rates". Otago Daily Times, 24
April 1945.


"Women’s Rest Rooms - Preparing New George Street Quarters". Evening Star, 16 November
1939, Issue 23425, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19391116.2.66.


"Women’s Rest Rooms - Princes Street Suite Ready". Evening Star, 19 July 1927, Issue 19612, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19270719.2.50.


"Women’s Rest Rooms - Several Amenities Introduced". Evening Star, 18 September 1940, Issue 23684, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19400918.2.64.


"Women’s Rest Rooms Accomodation Inadequate". Evening Star, 26 April 1945, https://paperspast.natlib.govt.nz/newspapers/ESD19450426.2.103.


"Women’s Rest Rooms in Octagon Should Be Ready in Month". Evening Star, 1950.

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