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How Convenient are our Conveniences? The demise of the underground facilities in Dunedin 1910-1980s.

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Secondary Sources

AM, ‘Spend a Penny, Spare a Thought’. Melbourne History Workshop (blog), 1 August 2016.

Auckland City Council, ‘Caught Short: A Brief History of Auckland’s Heritage Toilets’. Auckland, 2015.

Barry, Aoife, ‘Hidden Ireland: Supplying “a Long-Felt Want” - Dublin’s Public Toilets’The, accessed 4 June 2018.

Brickell, Chris, ‘“Waiting for Uncle Ben”: Age-Structured Homosexuality in New Zealand, 1920–1950’. 29. Journal of the History of Sexuality, Vol. 21, No. 3 (September 2012), pp. 467-495.

Cavanagh, Sue, and Vron Ware, ‘Less Convenient for Women’. Built Environment; London 16, Number 4 (1 January 1990), pp 279–287.

Collingwood, Neil, Secret Leek. Amberley Publishing Limited, 2016.

Cooley, Danika, ‘One Small Flush for Mankind’. Faces; Peterborough, 2011.

Cooper, Annabel, Robin Law, Jane Malthus, and Pamela Wood, ‘Rooms of Their Own: Public Toilets and Gendered Citizens in a New Zealand City, 1860‐1940’Gender, Place & Culture 7, Number 4 (1 December 2000), pp 417–33.

Daley, Caroline. ‘Flushed with Pride? Women’s Quest for Public Toilets in New Zealand’. Women’s Studies Journal, Auckland, (2000), volume 16, pp 95-113.

De Vos, Els. ‘Ladies and Gents: Public Toilets and Gender’. Technology and Culture; Baltimore, 52, no. 1 (January 2011), pp 220–21.

Denley, James, ‘A History of Twyfords 1680 - 1982’. published for Twyford Group, 1982. 

Flanagan, Maureen. ‘Private Needs, Public Space: Public Toilets Provision in the Anglo-Atlantic Patriarchal City: London, Dublin, Toronto and Chicago’. Urban History, 41, Number 02 (May 2014), pp 265–90.

Gershenson, Olga, Barbara Penner, and Rebecca Housel, ‘Ladies and Gents: Public Toilets and Gender’. Journal of Popular Culture 43, Number 1 (2010), pp 206–7.

Gough, Deborah. ‘Council Flushes out Underground Toilets’. The Age, Melbourne, Victoria, 26 June 2013.

Isaacs, N., 'Public Conveniences'. BUILD, 98, (February – March 2007), pp 94-95.

Isaacs, N., 'Toilets come full circle'. BUILD, 97, (December-January 2006), pp 86-87.

Jordan, Kate, ‘Women’s Rest Rooms James Lane, New Plymouth - Conservation Report’. 2017.

McCabe, Sarah, ‘The Provision of Underground Public Conveniences in London with Reference to Gender Differentials, 1850s-1980s’. Masters Thesis, University of London, 2012.

Molotch, Harvey Luskin, and Laura Noren, Toilet: Public Restrooms and the Politics of Sharing. New York University Press, 2010. 

New Zealand Architectural History Symposium ‘Nothing to Be Ashamed of in a Good Nail’: New Zealand Architecture in the 1910s." (14th: Victoria University of Wellington), Faculty of Architecture and Design, Victoria University, 2017.

O’Bryan, Katherine Merzbacher, ‘Gender, Politics, and Power: The Development of the Ladies Rest Room and Lounge in Rural America, 1900-1945’. Ph.D., Middle Tennessee State University, 2013.

Penner, B, ‘A World of Unmentionable Suffering. Women’s Public Conveniences in Victorian London’. Journal of Design History, 14, Number 1 (2001), pp 35–52.

Pilkington, Dorothy, ‘Spending a Penny: Public Rest Rooms for Women in Palmerston North and Feilding’. Manawatū Journal of History, 5 (2009), pp 5-15.

Plaskow, Judith, ‘Embodiment, Elimination, and the Role of Toilets in Struggles for Social Justice’. Cross Currents, New York, Spring 2008.

‘Richard W Richards’. Sydney Aldermen (blog), City of Sydney website, Sydney City Council

Ross, Andrew I, ‘Review of Gershenson, Olga; Penner, Barbara, Eds., Ladies and Gents: Public Toilets and Gender’. H-Histsex, H-Review, November 2010.

Rupp, Rebecca, ‘Of Pots and Privies’. Early American Life, Camp Hill, August 2007.

Stanwell-Smith, R., ‘Public Toilets down the Drain? Why Privies Are a Public Health Concern’. Public Health 124, Number 11 (1 November 2010), pp 613–16.

Wood, Pamela J., Dirt: Filth and Decay in a New World Arcadia. Auckland, N.Z., Auckland University Press, 2005.

Primary Sources

Dunedin City Council Archives Series

Chief Sanitary Inspector’s Business Book, 1924-1935, acc1994/1

City Engineers Series Correspondence, DCC CE/2, 1914-1996

City Engineers Series, Plans of Public Conveniences, DCC CE 14/2/2

‘City Engineer Contract File 3/3, Contract 93 and 233 - Public Conveniences’, 1910, DCC CE 3/3

‘City Engineers Plan - Additions to Convenience, 1911, Plan 8925’, 23 May 1911, DCC CE 8925

City Health Inspector Inspectors Book 1958-1967, acc1994/1

City Health Department Correspondence, c1982-1989, acc1998/8

Dunedin City Council Annual Department Reports 1905-1980, DCC TC/27

Dunedin City Council Minute Books, Town Clerk Series 1, DCC TC/1

Dunedin Sanitary and Vehicle Inspector’s Business Book, 24 June 1909 – 2 March 1925, acc1994/1

Dunedin Town Board Letter Book, 1855-1865, DCC TC 30/1, 30/2

Public Works Committee Minutes, Dunedin City Council, Town Clerk Series 4, DCC TC/4

Town Clerk Newspaper Clipping Books, Town Clerk Series 41, DCC TC/41

Town Clerk Series 33 Correspondence, 1906-1980, DCC TC/33


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