See the exhaustive article by Fr. Pfister, "Rauchopfer," in Pauly-Wissowa, Real Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft, Zweite Reihe, I, cols. 267 ff. For ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, and Palestine, numerous references will be found in J. R. Partington, Origin and Development of Applied Chemistry, London, 1935, pp. 146 f., 306, and 515 ff. This extremely useful book contains some 25,000 references. Hence, many errors, as the author himself recognized, were inescapable, and therefore it must be consulted with great caution. Regarding various incenses known to pre-Islamic Iran, consult Bundahishn, transl. by E. W. West, The Sacred Books of the East, V, Pahlavi Texts, Part I, Oxford, 188o, pp. 102 f., chap. XXVII, 19; see also B. Laufer, Sino-Iranica, Chicago, 1919, p. 193. For the Islamic periods valuable information will be found in the respective chapters of the twelfth volume of al-Nuwayri's Nihayat al-‘Arab fi Funun al-Adab, Cairo, 1937.