1. On the subject of war in contemporary art, see Susanne Slavick, Out of Rubble (New York City: Charta Books Ltd., 2011). Regarding ethical considerations about the body in conflict, see Judith Butler, Frames of War: When Is Life Grievable? (Maple Vail: Verso, 2009); Susan Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others (New York, New York: Picador, 2003).
2. Susanne Slavick states, “Pain actually destroys language, leaving the suffering subject in absolute isolation.” Susanne Slavick, Out of Rubble (New York City: Charta Books Ltd., 2011), 16.
3. Susan Sontag, Regarding the Pain of Others (New York, New York: Picador, 2003), 8.
4. See Maura Lyons, “An Embodied Landscape: Wounded Trees at Gettysburg,” American Art 26, no. 3 (Fall 2012): 44-65.
5. In his book Shoot an Iraqi, artist Wafaa Bilal explains, “I’m here to shed light on the destruction and violence of warfare in a language that I hope people who have never experienced conflict can understand.” Wafaa Bilal and Kari Lydersen, Shoot an Iraqi: Art, Life and Resistance Under the Gun (San Francisco CA: City Lights Books, 2008), 5
6. Ibid., 70.
7. “Lens of War: Exploring Iconic Photographs of the Civil War,” Friends Fund, UnCivil Wars, 2015, 7.
8. “Alexander Gardner PHOTOGRAPHER,” The Civil War Trust, n.d. http://www.civilwar.org/edu- cation/history/biographies/alexander-gardner.html?referrer=https://www.google.com/.
9. Two of the three stereoscopes have published information written on the back of the cards, providing an interesting look into how they were presented to the public twenty-five years after they were taken. The back of The Horrors of War states: “A Union soldier killed by a shell at Gettysburg, July 3, 1863. His arm was torn off, and can be seen on the ground near his musket, and entirely separated from his body. The shell also completely disemboweled the poor fellow, and killed him so quick that he never knew what struck him. Think of a battlefield covering nearly twenty-five square miles, and covered with thousands of dead, many of them mangled even worse than this one and you can have a faint idea of Gettysburg in the early days of July, 1863.”
10. Sontag, 59.
11. Ibid., 15.
13. Ibid., 17.
15. Ibid., 7.
16. Celia Malone Kingsbury, For Home and Country: World War I Propaganda on the Home Front (Uni- versity of Nebraska Press, 2010), 26.
17. Ibid., 30.
18. George Roeder writes, “Propagandists, like generals, are guided by lessons learned in past wars when fighting a new one.” George Roeder, The Censored War: American Visual Experience Dur- ing World War II (Yale University Press, 1993), 7.
19. Sontag, 14.
20. Debra Ramsay, American Media and the Memory of World War II (New York, New York: Routledge, 2015).
21. Roeder, 11.
22. Daniel Hallin, The “Uncensored War”: Media in Vietnam (London, England: University of California Press, 1986), 2.
23. Kingsbury, 28.
24. Debra Ramsay, American Media and the Memory of World War II (New York, New York: Routledge, 2015).
25. Judith Butler, Frames of War: When Is Life Grievable? (Maple Vail: Verso, 2009), 34. 26 Sontag, 64.
27. Ibid., 81.
28. Judith Butler elaborates on this subject: “Specific lives cannot be apprehended as injured or lost
if they are not first apprehended as living. If certain lives do not qualify as lives or are, from the start, not conceivable as lives within certain epistemological frames, then these lies are never lived nor lost in the full sense.” Judith Butler, Frames of War: When Is Life Grievable? (Maple Vail: Verso, 2009),14.
29. Sontag, 80.